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shift. Antigenic drift creates influenza viruses with slightly modified antigens, while antigenic shift generates viruses with entirely new antigens . Source: Wikipedia Commons and USDA.
What is the difference between antigenic drift and antigenic shift?
Antigenic drift involves the accumulation of a series of minor genetic mutations. Antigenic shift involves “mixing” of genes from influenza viruses from different species. Pigs, birds, and humans.
What is the difference between genetic shift and genetic drift?
Influenza strains are constantly mutating. A small change to the genetic makeup of influenza strains is referred to as antigenic drift, while a major change is called antigenic shift.
Which is more common antigenic shift or drift?
While flu viruses change all the time due to antigenic drift, antigenic shift happens less frequently. Flu pandemics occur rarely; there have been four flu pandemics in the past 100 years.
What is the best example of an antigenic shift?
An example of a pandemic resulting from antigenic shift was the 1918-19 outbreak of Spanish Influenza. This strain was originally the H1N1 avian flu, however antigenic shift allowed the viral infection to jump from pigs to humans, resulting in a large pandemic which killed over 40 million people.
What does H1N1 stand for?
by the third week of April it was established that the illness resulted from a triple recombination of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses; the virus has been found to be H1N1.—
What does hemagglutinin and neuraminidase do?
How does an antigenic shift happen?
Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains.
Does antigenic drift cause pandemic?
The emergence of a new strain of influenza A due to antigenic drift can cause an influenza epidemic or pandemic.
Does antigenic shift occur in rotaviruses?
Aside from showing different G and P types and an extensive variety of combinations therein, rotaviruses can accumulate point mutations leading to antigenic drift, reassortment of genome segments to drive antigenic shift, and zoonotic transmission of animal strains to introduce new antigenic types into humans.
How many strains of flu are in a typical flu shot?
All flu vaccines in the United States are “quadrivalent” vaccines, which means they protect against four different flu viruses: an influenza A(H1N1) virus, an influenza A(H3N2) virus, and two influenza B viruses.
What enzyme is associated with antigenic drift?
Antigenic drift is a feature of not only the hemagglutinin (HA), but also of neuraminidase (NA).
What causes antigenic drift to occur in viral infections?
Antigenic drift: A subtle change in the surface glycoprotein (either hemagglutinin or neuraminidase) caused by a point mutation or deletion in the viral gene. This results in a new strain that requires yearly reformulation of the seasonal influenza vaccine.
How do immune cells with sensitivity to self antigens become eliminated?
In order to pass the positive selection process, cells must be capable of binding only self-MHC molecules. Negative selection tests for self tolerance.
How often does antigenic shift occur?
While antigenic drifts occur almost annually, antigenic shifts occur at intervals of 10 years or more.
What does hemagglutinin mean?
hemagglutinin, any of a group of naturally occurring glycoproteins that cause red blood cells (erythrocytes) to agglutinate, or clump together. These substances are found in plants, invertebrates, and certain microorganisms.
Which influenza pandemic was notable for an antigenic shift from H2N2 to H3N2?
The 1968 pandemic was caused by influenza A/Hong Kong/1968 (H3N2) virus. This pandemic virus contained two genes derived from a low-pathogenicity avian influenza A virus and six genes from the A(H2N2) virus that had been circulating among people since its emergence to cause the 1957 H2N2 pandemic.
What does H and N Mean influenza?
H & N. The H stands for one of the 16 different hemagglutinin proteins contained in a virus that allows it to penetrate a foreign body. The “N” stands for another protein in the genetic make-up of a flu virus called neuraminidase, of which there currently exist nine variations.
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What does H7N9 stand for?
Human infections with an Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (“Asian H7N9”) were first reported in China in March 2013. Annual epidemics of sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses in China have been reported since that time.
Is hemagglutinin a neuraminidase?
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase refers to a single viral protein that has both hemagglutinin and (endo) neuraminidase EC 3.2. 1.18 activity. This is in contrast to the proteins found in influenza, where both functions exist but in two separate proteins.
Are H spikes neuraminidase?
Among other things, influenza A viruses are fashionistas. They cover themselves in an array of accessories. But instead of wearing Dolce and Gabbana, influenza prefers “H & N,” aka hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are little protein spikes on the flu’s surface that help it invade cells.
emergence of a novel influenza virus
Antigenic shift refers to the emergence of a novel influenza virus in humans, due to direct introduction of an avian strain or to a new strain produced by recombination and reassortment of two different influenza viruses.
When does antigenic drift occur?
Antigenic drift is a natural process whereby mutations (mistakes) occur during replication in the genes encoding antigens that produce alterations in the way they appear to the immune system .
What is the difference between lectin and glycoprotein?
Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are present in a variety of organisms. They possess the ability to weakly bind glycans with high specificity. According to Rudiger and Gabius, 2001, there are three characteristics a protein or glycoprotein must possess to define itself as a lectin.
How does hemagglutinin bind to sialic acid?
Avian-adapted influenza virus hemagglutinins bind sialic acid receptors linked via α2-3 glycosidic bonds, while human-adapted hemagglutinins bind α2-6 receptors. Sequence analysis of 1918 isolates showed hemagglutinin genes with α2-6 or mixed α2-6/α2-3 binding.
Are there 2 types of flu vaccines?
Two types of influenza vaccine are widely available: inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV).
What is an antigenic shift biology?
antigenic shift, genetic alteration occurring in an infectious agent that causes a dramatic change in a protein called an antigen, which stimulates the production of antibodies by the immune systems of humans and other animals.
What month should the flu vaccine be given?
It takes about two weeks after vaccination for antibodies that protect against flu to develop in the body.
Why are mature B and T cells self tolerant?
B-Cell Self-Tolerance Mechanisms
Rather than immediate removal, self-reactive B-Cells have the opportunity to undergo receptor editing.
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Is drift or antigenic shift worse?
How is antigenic shift different from antigenic drift ?
How is antigenic shift different from antigenic drift? The change in viral proteins is sudden.
Which virus has hemagglutinin?
The hemagglutinin(HA) of influenza virus is a major glycoprotein and plays a crucial role in the early stage of virus infection: HA is responsible for binding of the virus to cell surface receptors, and it mediates liberation of the viral genome into the cytoplasm through membrane fusion.
Is hemagglutinin an antibody?
Chicken anti influenza heamagglutinin antibody recognizes influenza hemagglutinin, a glycosylated antireceptor which binds to cell surface glycoproteins prior to penetration of the cell membrane and uncoating of the virus.
What was the worst flu epidemic?(antigenic shift vs drift)
In one year, the virus infected as many as 1.4 billion people across the globe and killed between 151,700 and 575,400 people, according to the CDC.
What is the difference between H1N1 and H3N2?(antigenic shift vs drift)
Conclusions: Influenza A H3N2 infection was more severe than A H1N1 or B in terms of fever, leukopenia, and C-reactive protein. Myalgia and other symptoms such as fever, headache, general malaise and sore throat were equally frequent in influenza A H3N2, A H1N1, and B infectio