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characteristic of procedural programming

characteristic of procedural programming

characteristic of procedural programming

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What Is Programming?

characteristic of procedural programming
characteristic of procedural programming

The term programming refers to the process of telling a computer what tasks to perform to resolve a problem. As a human-computer collaboration, programming involves creating instructions (code) that computers can understand in a language they can understand.

Our lives are made possible by programming. Examples include:

  • Programming enables you to interact with an on-page element, such as a sign-up or purchase button, contact form, or drop-down menu, on a website to find information, contact a service provider, or purchase something.
  • With a mobile app, you can order food, book a rideshare service, track your fitness, access media, and more.
  • Through software for file storage and automation, video conferencing tools for connecting people around the world, and other tools, programming helps businesses operate more efficiently.
  • The ability to explore space is enabled by programming.

Languages most commonly used in programming

characteristic of procedural programming
characteristic of procedural programming

The use of different programming languages enables programmers to write code that is understandable by computers. Statista’s survey found that developers use the following top five programming languages in June 2022:

  • JavaScript, used by 65.36 percent
  • HTML/CSS, used by 55.08 percent
  • SQL, used by 49.43 percent
  • Python, used by 48.07 percent
  • TypeScript, used by 34.83 percent


All major web browsers support this language. A web page can be enhanced with JavaScript by adding features such as interactive maps, animated graphics, and content updates.


Web pages and web applications are created using these languages. Web pages are built using HTML (HyperText Markup Language), while their styling is determined by CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).


It is used to update and retrieve data from databases. SQL stands for Structured Query Language.


There are a number of uses for Python programming, including machine learning, web development, and desktop applications. Beginners often choose Python because of its easy syntax. Object-oriented programming is what it’s known for.


TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, developed by Microsoft. Large applications are developed with it.

Programming languages types

characteristic of procedural programming
characteristic of procedural programming

There are hundreds (if not thousands) of programming languages, and they can be classified in many ways. However, they usually fall into five major categories:

  1. Procedural programming languages
  2. Functional programming languages
  3. Object-oriented programming languages
  4. Scripting languages
  5. Logic programming languages

Procedural Language: What Does It Mean?

Several well-structured steps and procedures are specified by a procedural language to compose a program within its programming context. To accomplish a computational task or program, statements, functions, and commands are arranged in a systematic manner.

An imperative language is also known as a procedural language.

Language of Procedures Explained by Techopedia

characteristic of procedural programming
characteristic of procedural programming

By describing all the steps that the computer must take to reach a desired state or output, a procedural language relies on predefined and well-organized procedures, functions, or sub-routines in a program’s architecture.

In procedural languages, variables, functions, statements, and conditional operators are used to separate a program into sections. A task can be accomplished by implementing procedures on data and variables. It is possible to call/invoke these procedures anywhere within a program hierarchy, and they can also be invoked from other procedures as well. One or more procedures are contained in a procedural language program.

There are many procedural languages in use, including C/C++, Java, ColdFusion, and PASCAL.

characteristic of procedural programming

Procedural programming has the following characteristics:

  1. Top-down approaches are used in procedural programming.
  2. Functions are blocks of code that perform specific tasks within the program.
  3. Data is the input to a procedural program, where ‘procedures’ operate on ‘data’.
  4. There is a separation between the data and the functions.
  5. A program allows data to move freely.
  6. The logic of a program is easy to understand.
  7. It is possible for a function to access data from another function by calling it.

Procedural programming versus object-oriented programming: what’s the difference?

In procedural programming, functions are small programs that are divided into smaller programs. The concept of object-oriented programming refers to the division of a program into small parts, which are referred to as objects. Throughout the system, data is able to move freely between functions.

OOP: What Does It Mean?

Objects in programming are what their name suggests. Every concept in a programming model is represented by an object. An object-oriented approach tries to view the entire world as a collection of objects. Dogs, for instance, have states such as color, hungry, and breed, and behavioral methods such as barking, wagging tail, eating, sleeping, etc.

An object-oriented programming approach implements real-world concepts in programs, such as inheritance, abstraction, polymorphism, etc. OOPs in C++ are built upon the following concepts:

  • Object
  • Class
  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction
  • Polymorphism
  • Inheritance
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Message Passing

Taking each one one at a time, let’s discuss it.


A C++ object is an entity with some characteristics and behavior, like a dog or a pen or a pencil, that exists physically in the world. A class instance is an object. Object-Oriented Programming allocates memory when objects are created, but not when classes are defined.


Object-oriented programming in C++ uses classes as blueprints. An object’s blueprint is defined when you define a class. The data members of a class (variables) and the member functions of a class are called members.

Persons can be classified into different classes. Although there may be many people with different names and heights, each will have some common characteristics, such as a gender, age, occupation, etc. Age, gender, and occupation are properties of the person – the class.

A member function is a function that manipulates a data member in C++ OOPs. Objects in a class have properties and behaviors defined by their data members and member functions.

Class Person would have age, gender, and occupation as data members, and walking, eating, and sleeping as member functions.

C++ class definition.

In C++, OOPs is represented by classes that are defined with the keyword class followed by their names. Within curly brackets, the class body is defined and terminated with a semicolon.


Abstractions are one of the most useful and necessary features of OOPs in C++.

Abstraction means avoiding unnecessary or irrelevant information and only showing users what they need to see. Another way to describe abstraction is to hide the details while presenting only the most pertinent information. Abstract classes and interfaces are used in C++ to achieve abstraction.


Polymorphism is a concept in C++ OOPs that describes the ability to take on several forms at once. Consider yourself a student in a classroom at that time. It is at that point when you behave like a customer in the market. As a child, you behave that way when you are at home during that time. Various behaviors are being displayed by one individual in this case.

Polymorphism can be achieved using Operator overloading and Function overloading in C++ OOPs.

  • As a result of operator overloading, an operator exhibits different behaviors in different situations.
  • Using the same function name for multiple tasks is known as function overloading.

The following example shows how to add integers using a function. It is possible to have two integers or three integers. Addition methods can have the same name but differing parameters, and we will call them based on their parameters.


It is known as inheritance when an object inherits all the properties and behaviors of its parent object or when one class inherits all the capabilities from another class. It helps to reduce the code size

A child and their parents are real-life examples of inheritance. A father’s property is inherited by his son.

Dynamic Binding:

A binding in C++ OOPs refers to linking things together, like linking objects. In late binding, a function is selected for execution until the runtime through dynamic binding. In contrast to early binding and static binding, this process occurs at compile-time.

A virtual function implements the concept of dynamic binding.

Message Passing:

Communication is the process of sending and receiving information between objects. A message is passed by specifying the object name, the function name, and the data to send.

Procedural programming’s advantages

  • General-purpose programming is possible with it.
  • Software programs can access the same code at different points without repeating it.
  • A procedural programming technique can also reduce memory requirements.

Programs that use procedural logic have disadvantages

characteristic of procedural programming
characteristic of procedural programming
  • Procedural-oriented programming does not have the code reusability feature. Programming codes have to be rewritten repeatedly.
  • Relationship with real-world objects is difficult.
  • Inheritance, encapsulation, and other operations are not supported.


There are certainly many advantages to procedural programming. One of them is that it is easy to learn and implement.

Learning procedural programming is an excellent way to start as a new programmer.

Their understanding of programming languages will be improved as a result.

However, real-world applications do not use procedural programming because of its limitations.


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