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Nitrogen is considered an electrical insulator (or dielectric) in its solid, liquid, or gaseous form. The conductive state of nitrogen is actually a fourth state of matter, called a plasma. And all plasmas are electrically conductive.
Is liquid nitrogen electrically conductive?
About four-fifths of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, which was isolated and recognized as a specific substance during early investigations of the air. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, showed in 1772 that air is a mixture of two gases, one of which he called “fire air,” because it supported combustion, and the other “foul air,” because it was left after the “fire air” had been used up.
The “fire air” was, of course, oxygen and the “foul air” nitrogen. At about the same time, nitrogen also was recognized by a Scottish botanist, , Daniel Rutherford (who was the first to publish his findings), by the British chemist Henry Cavendish, and by the British clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley, who, with Scheele, is given credit for the discovery of oxygen. Later work showed the new gas to be a constituent of nitre, a common name for potassium nitrate (KNO3), and, accordingly.
Occurrence and distribution
Among the elements, nitrogen ranks sixth in cosmic abundance. The atmosphere of Earth consists of 75.51 percent by weight (or 78.09 percent by volume) of nitrogen; this is the principal source of nitrogen for commerce and industry.
The atmosphere also contains varying small amounts of ammonia and ammonium salts, as well as nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (the latter substances being formed in electrical storms and in the internal combustion engine).
Commercial production and uses
Commercial production of nitrogen is largely by fractional distillation of liquefied air. The boiling temperature of nitrogen is −195.8 °C (−320.4 °F), about 13 °C (−23 °F) below that of oxygen, which is therefore left behind.
Nitrogen can also be produced on a large scale by burning carbon or hydrocarbons in air and separating the resulting carbon dioxide and water from the residual nitrogen. On a small scale, pure nitrogen is made by heating barium azide, Ba(N3)2. Various laboratory reactions that yield nitrogen include heating ammonium nitrite (NH4NO2) solutions, oxidation of ammonia by bromine water,and oxidation of ammonia by hot cupric oxide.
Although the other applications are important, by far the greatest bulk of elemental nitrogen is consumed in the manufacture of nitrogen compounds. The triple bond between atoms in the nitrogen molecules is so strong (226 kilocalories per mole, more than twice that of molecular hydrogen) that it is difficult to cause molecular nitrogen to enter into other combinations.
The chief commercial method of fixing nitrogen (incorporating elemental nitrogen into compounds) is the Haber-Bosch process for synthesizing ammonia.
Properties and reaction
Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless gas, which condenses at −195.8 °C to a colourless, mobile liquid. The element exists as N2 molecules, represented as :N:::N:, for which the bond energy of 226 kilocalories per mole is exceeded only by that of carbon monoxide, 256 kilocalories per mole.
Because of this high bond energy the activation energy for reaction of molecular nitrogen is usually very high, causing nitrogen to be relatively inert to most reagents under ordinary conditions.
Furthermore, the high stability of the nitrogen molecule contributes significantly to the thermodynamic instability of many nitrogen compounds, in which the bonds, although reasonably strong, are far less so than those in molecular nitrogen. For these reasons, elemental nitrogen appears to conceal quite effectively the truly reactive nature of its individual atoms.
Often the percentage of nitrogen in gas mixtures can be determined by measuring the volume after all other components have been absorbed by chemical reagents.
Nitrogen is released from organic compounds when they are burned over copper oxide, and the free nitrogen can be measured as a gas after other combustion products have been absorbed. The well-known Kjeldahl method for determining the nitrogen content of organic compounds involves digestion of the compound with concentrated sulfuric acid (optionally containing mercury, or its oxide, and various salts, depending on the nature of the nitrogen compound).
In this way, the nitrogen present is converted to ammonium sulfate. Addition of an excess of sodium hydroxide releases free ammonia, which is collected in standard acid; the amount of residual acid, which has not reacted with ammonia, is then determined by titration.
Gases may in various ways be put into a state in which they conduct electricity on an altogether different scale from the normal gas.
Ultra-violet light of very short wave length can impart this property to a gas, while gases recently driven from flames or from near arcs or sparks or bubbled through certain liquids or passed slowly over phosphorus also possess this property.
The conductivity of gases possesses interesting characteristics. In the first place it persists for some time after the agent which made the gas a conductor has ceased to act; it always however diminishes after the agent is removed, in some cases very rapidly, and finally disappears.
The conducting gas loses its conductivity if it is sucked through glass-wool, or made to bubble through water. The conductivity may also be removed by making the gas traverse a strong electric field so that a current of electricity passes through it.
Since the gas when in the conducting state shows as a whole no charge of electricity, the charges mixed with the gas must be both positive and negative.
Pharmacology and Biochemistry
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction.
50 to 60% of inspired nitrogen dioxide in rhesus monkeys was retained during quiet resp, the gas was distributed throughout lungs. Once absorbed, nitrogen dioxide or chem intermediates remained within lungs for prolonged periods after cessation of exposure, & dissemination to extrapulmonary sites occurred via blood stream.
Inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by mice administered orally amidopyrine (AP) and sodium nitrite resulted in increased biosynthesis of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), as determined by analysis using gas chromatography with thermal energy analyzer detector.
The inhibition of NDMA metabolism by 4-methylpyrazol (4-MP) administration increases the sensitivity of NDMA biosynthesis assay in frozen whole-mouse powder. The results confirm that NO2 can serve as the precursor of nitrosamines.
Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to atmospheres containing low levels of nitrogen dioxide for 24 hr had increased levels of nitrate in their urine on the day of exposure & on the 3 subsequent days.
Authors findings support the hypothesis that the major interaction of nitrogen dioxide in the lung is with readily oxidizable tissue components to form nitrite, & they estimate that 9.6 umol of nitrite is formed in the respiratory tract per ppm nitrogen dioxide 24 hr exposure.
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) include, nitrogen dioxide (.NO2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Classically known as a major component of both indoor and outdoor air pollution, .NO2 is a toxic free radical gas. Due to their reactive nature, RNS may play an important role in disease pathology.
Depending on the dose and the duration of administration, . Injury to the lung epithelial cells following exposure to .The persistent injury and repair process may contribute to airway remodeling, including the development of fibrosis.
To better understand the signaling pathways involved in epithelial cell death by .NO2. Studies using the .NO2 exposure system revealed that lung epithelial cell death occurs in a density dependent manner .NO2-induced death does not appear to be dependent on oxidative stress per se.
does nitrogen conduct electricity when solid
Nitrogen is considered an electrical insulator (or dielectric) in its solid, liquid, or gaseous form. … The conductive state of nitrogen is actually a fourth state of matter, called a plasma.And all plasmas are electrically conductive.
Why is nitrogen not a metal?
It is a gas, as it has under standard conditions gas properties, it has noshine, can’t conduct electricity or. Does so poorly,same with heat. Chemically it can oxidize and reduce while metals only oxidize, and nitrogen oxides react with water to make acids, while metals make bases..
Besides, is nitrogen a metal or non metal?
The non-metals or non-metallic elements; hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), sulphur (sulfer) (S), selenium (Se), (Uuo may belong here) and the noble gases form a relatively small group with a step like pattern towards the left-hand side of the periodic table (hydrogen being the odd one
In this way, why is nitrogen a nonmetal?
Nitrogen is a nonmetal. Nitrogen’s usual gaseous form and its high electronegativity are two basic features of nonmetals. Moreover, the lack of solid