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gallbladder removal medical term,
What is a cholecystectomy (gallbladder)?
A cholecystectomy is surgery to remove your gallbladder.
The gallbladder is a small organ under your liver. It is on the upper right side of your belly or abdomen. The gallbladder stores a digestive juice called bile which is made in the liver.
There are 2 types of surgery to remove the gallbladder:
Open (traditional) method. In this method, 1 cut (incision) about 4 to 6 inches long is made in the upper right-hand side of your belly. The surgeon finds the gallbladder and takes it out through the incision.
Laparoscopic method. This method uses 3 to 4 very small incisions. It uses a long, thin tube called a laparoscope. The tube has a tiny video camera and surgical tools. The tube, camera and tools are put in through the incisions. The surgeon does the surgery while looking at a TV monitor. The gallbladder is removed through 1 of the incisions.
Moreover in some cases the laparoscope may show that your gallbladder is very diseased. Or it may show other problems. Then the surgeon may have to use an open surgery method to remove your gallbladder safely.
Why open gallbladder removal is done
Unfortunately, the gallbladder isn’t always the most efficient organ. Bile can be thick and create blockages along the pathway where it typically empties. The gallbladder is also prone to develop gallstones in certain people.
Moreover gallstones are hard deposits of substances in the bile that can get stuck inside the gallbladder and biliary ducts. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can also lead to acute or chronic gallbladder inflammation, sometimes with an associated infection, which can cause:
- further pain
A surgeon will remove your gallbladder if gallstones cause significant pain and other complications.
Other conditions that could make you a candidate for gallbladder removal include:
- Biliary dyskinesia. This occurs when the gallbladder doesn’t empty bile correctly due to a defect in its motion.
- Choledocholithiasis. This happens when gallstones have moved to the common bile duct where they may be stuck, causing a blockage that doesn’t allow the gallbladder or rest of the biliary tree to drain.
- Cholecystitis. This is inflammation of the gallbladder.
- Pancreatitis. This is inflammation of the pancreas.
A doctor will recommend gallbladder removal if your gallbladder is causing a severe, acute problem or has become a chronic concern. Some symptoms that may indicate the need for gallbladder removal include:
- sharp pain in the right upper portion of your abdomen that can radiate to the middle of your abdomen, right shoulder, or back
- jaundice, or yellowing of your skin, which typically indicates a bile duct blockage when due to biliary disease
Sometimes a doctor will recommend watchful waiting to see if gallbladder-related symptoms lessen. Diet changes, such as reducing overall fat intake, may also help. If symptoms persist, a doctor may recommend surgery.
The general procedure includes:
- The surgeon makes a number of small incisions into your abdomen, so that slender instruments can reach into the abdominal cavity.
- A tube blowing a gentle stream of carbon dioxide gas is inserted. This separates the abdominal wall from the underlying organs.
- The surgeon views the gallbladder on a TV monitor by using a tiny camera attached to the laparoscope.
- Special x-rays (cholangiograms) during the operation can check for gallstones wedged in the bile ducts.
- The ducts and artery that service the gallbladder are clipped shut. These clips are permanent.
- The gallbladder is cut free using either laser or electrocautery
- The gallbladder, along with its load of gallstones, is pulled out of the body through one of the abdominal incisions.
- The instruments and the carbon dioxide gas are removed from the abdominal cavity. The incisions are sutured (closed up) and covered with dressings.
What Causes Gallbladder Problems?
Gallstones are often the cause. These small, hard deposits form in the gallbladder. They can also get into the bile duct, which connects the gallbladder with your intestines.
You are more likely to get gallstones if you:
- Are a woman,
- Have had children,
- Are overweight, or
- Are over 40.
You might also get gallstones if other people in your family had them. Doctors do not have a consistent way of preventing gallstones.
What are the symptoms of gallbladder problems?
Symptoms can include:
- Sharp pain in your abdomen,
- Nausea and vomiting,
- Fever, and
- Yellow skin – Jaundice is the medical term for skin and eyes that look yellow. You might get jaundice if gallstones block your bile duct.
The overall risk of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery is very low. The most serious possible complications include:
- Infection of an incision.
- Internal bleeding.
- Injury to the common bile duct.
- Injury to the small intestine by one of the instruments used during surgery.
- Risks of general anesthesia.
Other uncommon complications may include:
- Gallstones that remain in the abdominal cavity.
- Bile that leaks into the abdominal cavity.
- Injury to abdominal blood vessels, such as the major blood vessel carrying blood from the heart to the liver (hepatic artery). This is rare.
- A gallstone being pushed into the common bile duct.
- The liver being cut.
What are the benefits of this type of surgery?
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal has many advantages. This may allow you to:
- Have less pain after surgery.
- a shorter hospital stay.
- a shorter recovery time.
- Return to work more quickly.
- Have much less noticeable scars than with a traditional cholecystectomy.
How you prepare,
Food and medications
To prepare for a cholecystectomy, your surgeon may ask you to:
- Eat nothing the night before your surgery. You may drink a sip of water with your medications, but avoid eating and drinking at least four hours before your surgery.
- Stop taking certain medications and supplements. Tell your doctor about all the medications and supplements you take. Continue taking most medications as prescribed. Your doctor may ask you to stop taking certain medications and supplements because they may increase your risk of bleeding.
Clothing and personal items
Most people go home the same day of their cholecystectomy, but complications can occur that require one or more nights in the hospital. Plan ahead in case you need to stay in the hospital by bringing personal items, such as your toothbrush, comfortable clothing, and books or magazines to pass the time.
find someone to drive you home and stay with you. Ask a friend or family member to drive you home and stay close the first night after surgery.
What happens during a cholecystectomy?
You may have a cholecystectomy as an outpatient or as part of your stay in a hospital. The way the surgery is done may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare provider’s practices.
Generally, a cholecystectomy follows this process:
- You will be asked to take off any jewelry or other objects that might interfere during surgery.
- You will be asked to remove clothing and be given a gown to wear.
- An intravenous (IV) line will be put in your arm or hand.
- You will be placed on your back on the operating table. The anesthesia will be started.
- A tube will be put down your throat to help you breathe. The anesthesiologist will check your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level during the surgery.
- If there is a lot of hair at the surgical site, it may be clipped off.
- The skin over the surgical site will be cleaned with a sterile (antiseptic) solution.
Complications after gallbladder surgery
All surgery carries some degree of risk. Possible complications of cholecystectomy include:
- internal bleeding
- injury to nearby digestive organs
- injury to the bile duct
- leakage of bile into the abdominal cavity
- injury to blood vessels.
Self-care after gallbladder surgery
- Rest as much as you can for around three to five days.
- Avoid heavy lifting and physical exertion.
- Expect your digestive system to take a few days to settle down. Common short-term problems include bloating, abdominal pains and changes to toilet habits.
Most people recover within one week of laparoscopic surgery.
As a results
In conclusion a cholecystectomy can relieve the pain and discomfort of gallstones. Conservative treatments, such as dietary modifications, usually can’t stop gallstones from recurring. In most cases, a cholecystectomy will prevent gallstones from coming back.
Most people won’t experience digestive problems after a cholecystectomy. Your gallbladder isn’t essential to healthy digestion. Some people may experience occasional loose stool after the procedure, which generally resolves over time. Discuss with your doctor any changes in your bowel habits or new symptoms following your procedure.
How quickly you can return to normal activities after a cholecystectomy depends on which procedure your surgeon uses and your overall health. People undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be able to go back to work in a matter of days. Those undergoing an open cholecystectomy may need a week or more to recover enough to return to work.