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how did art change during the renaissance,
The Renaissance began during the 14th century and remained the dominate style in Italy, and in much of Europe, until the 16th century. The term “renaissance” was developed during the 19th century in order to describe this period of time and its accompanying artistic style.
However, people who were living during the Renaissance did see themselves as different from their Medieval predecessors. Through a variety of texts that survive, we know that people living during the Renaissance saw themselves as different largely because they were deliberately trying to imitate the Ancients in art and architecture.
During the Renaissance, the type of work changed as well as the way in which artists approached their subjects. A large number of the pieces created during the Middle Ages in Europe was of a religious nature. Artists of the Renaissance continued to paint and sculpt religious figures, but they also included other subjects in their collections of work such as Greek and Roman mythology, historical subjects and portraits.
It was also common for paintings to depict scenes and details of everyday life. Figures in paintings and sculptures were created to more closely resemble what real people might look like or the ideal of the human figure. Strong attention was paid to light and how it might add depth, dimension, perspective and drama to paintings. Artists used perspective to create the illusion that the subjects of the paintings had three dimensions, making some objects appear to be further away than others. Artists also used proportion to paint objects in a realistic size, making sure that everything in the painting balanced realistically when compared to each other.
Contrary to popular belief, classical texts and knowledge never completely vanished from Europe during the Middle Ages. Charles Homer Haskins wrote in “The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century” that there were three main periods that saw resurgences in the art and philosophy of antiquity: the Carolingian Renaissance, which occurred during the reign of Charlemagne, the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (eighth and ninth centuries), the Ottonian Renaissance, which developed during the reigns of emperors Otto I, Otto II and Otto III (10thcentury) and the 12thCentury Renaissance.
The 12thCentury Renaissance was especially influential on the later Renaissance, said Wilde. Classical Latin texts and Greek science and philosophy began to be revived on a larger scale,and early versions of universities were established.
The Crusades played a role in ushering in the Renaissance, Philip Van Ness Myers wrote in “Medieval and Modern History.” While crusading, Europeans encountered advanced Middle Eastern civilizations,
The Black Death helped set the stage for the Renaissance, wrote Robert S. Gottfried in “The Black Death.” Deaths of many prominent officials caused social and political upheaval in Florence, where the Renaissance is considered to have begun. The Medici family moved to Florence in the wake of the plague.
They, and many others, took advantage of opportunities for greater social mobility. Becoming patrons of artists was a popular way for such newly powerful families to demonstrate their wealth. Some historians also argue that the Black Death caused people to question the church’s emphasis on the afterlife and focus more on the present moment, which is an element of the Renaissance’s humanist philosophy.
Many historians consider Florence to be the Renaissance’s birthplace, though others widen that designation to all of Italy. From Italy, Renaissance thought, values and artistic technique spread throughout Europe, according to Van Ness Myers. Military invasions in Italy helped spread ideas, while the end of the Hundred Years War between France and England allowed people to focus on things besides conflict.
What important events happened during the Renaissance?
Key Dates in Renaissance Philosophy, Politics, Religion, and…
Pre-1400: The Black Death and the Rise of Florence. …
1400 to 1450: The Rise of Rome and the de Medici Family. …
1451 to 1475: Leonardo da Vinci and the Gutenberg Bible. …
1476 to 1500: The Age of Exploration. …
1501 to 1550: Politics and the Reformation.
Why was Art important during the Renaissance?
Artists were known as Renaissance people because they were well educated in many different fields of study,
then used science, math, and culture to make art more realistic, used anatomy for modern portraits to look realistic. Math was used to work out the rules of linear perspective.
What were the major changes during the Renaissance period?
Some major developments of the Renaissance include astronomy, humanist philosophy, the printing press, vernacular language in writing, painting and sculpture technique,
world exploration and, in the late Renaissance, Shakespeare’s works.
High Renaissance Art (1490s-1527)
By the end of the 15th century, Rome had displaced Florence as the principal center of Renaissance art,
reaching a high point under the powerful and ambitious Pope Leo X (a son of Lorenzo de’ Medici). Three great masters–Leonardo da Vinci,
Michelangelo and Raphael–dominated the period known as the High Renaissance, which lasted roughly from the early 1490s until the sack of Rome by the troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain in 1527.
Leonardo (1452-1519) was the ultimate “Renaissance man” for the breadth of his intellect,
interest and talent and his expression of humanist and classical values. Leonardo’s best-known works, including the “Mona Lisa” (1503-05), “The Virgin of the Rocks” (1485) and the fresco “The Last Supper” (1495-98), showcase his unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow, as well as the physical relationship between figures–humans, animals and objects alike–and the landscape around them.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) drew on the human body for inspiration and created works on a vast scale. He was the dominant sculptor of the High Renaissance, producing pieces such as the Pietà in St. Peter’s Cathedral (1499) and the David in his native Florence (1501-04).
He carved the latter by hand from an enormous marble block; the famous statue measures five meters high including its base. Though Michelangelo considered himself a sculptor first and foremost, he achieved greatness as a painter as well, notably with his giant fresco covering the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, completed over four years (1508-12) and depicting various scenes from Genesis.
Raphael Sanzio, the youngest of the three great High Renaissance masters, learned from both da Vinci and Michelangelo. His paintings–most notably “The School of Athens” (1508-11), painted in the Vatican at the same time that Michelangelo was working on the Sistine Chapel–skillfully expressed the classical ideals of beauty,
serenity and harmony. Among the other great Italian artists working during this period were Sandro Botticelli, Bramante, Giorgione, Titian and Correggio.
how did art and science change during the enaissance,
The Scientific Renaissance took place between the mid 15th Century and late 17th Century. Some consider two distinct phases of the Scientific Renaissance
- 1450–1630 – Scientific Renaissance and rediscovery of the knowledge of the ancients.
- 1630- 1687 – Scientific Revolution – innovation of new ideas, focused on Sir Issac Newton.
- 17th Century – Age of Enlightenment – a continuation of scientific progress.
The Scientific Renaissance included the development of the scientific method. This involves testing the hypothesis through verifiable data. The significance of this is that it moved science from theory and conjecture to provable fact. This development of scientific method enabled new discoveries ranging from blood circulation in the body,
to the place of the earth in the solar system.
A defining moment in the history of science was the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus’s De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) This placed the earth as a planet orbiting the sun – as opposed to the prevailing geocentric view of earth. Copernicus’s work was strengthened by Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.
Aspects of the scientific revolution
The law of gravity. In physics,
Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion and gravity gave a comprehensive understanding of the universe based on these new ideas.
Anatomy. In anatomy, there was a rapid growth in understanding the mechanics of the human body, through dissection.
Circulation of blood. William Harvey’s discovered the role of the heart in circulating blood around the body.