The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew writings by the Israelites. The second division of Christian Bibles is the New Testament, written in the Koine Greek language.
The Old Testament consists of many distinct books by various authors produced over a period of centuries. Christians traditionally divide the Old Testament into four sections: the first five books or Pentateuch (corresponds to the Jewish Torah); the history books telling the history of the Israelites, from their conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon; the poetic and “Wisdom books” dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world; and the books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God.
Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches
The books that compose the Old Testament canon and their order and names differ between various branches of Christianity. The canons of the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches comprise up to 49 books; the Catholic canon comprises 46 books; and the most common Protestant canon comprise 39 books.
There are 39 books common to all the Catholic canons. They correspond to the 24 books of the Tanakh, with some differences of order, and there are some differences in text. The additional number reflects the splitting of several texts (Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra–Nehemiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets) into separate books in Christian Bibles. The books that are part of the Christian Old Testament but that are not part of the Hebrew canon are sometimes described as deuterocanonical.
In general, Protestant Bibles do not include the deuterocanonical books in their canon, but some versions of Anglican and Lutheran Bibles place such books in a separate section called apocrypha. These extra books are ultimately derived from the earlier Greek Septuagint collection of the Hebrew scriptures and are also Jewish in origin. Some are also contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
How many books in the bible?
It’s important to mention that not all Christian denominations consider the same books to be canon. Most Protestant Bibles have 66 books, 39 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament. The Roman Catholic Bible has 73 books including the seven known as the Apocrypha. And the Ethiopian Orthodox Church includes 81 total books in its Bible, including pseudepigrapha like 1 Enoch and Jubilees.
Who Decided Which Books to Include in the Bible?
In his best-selling novel, “The Da Vinci Code,” Dan Brown wrote that the Bible was assembled during the famous Council of Nicea in 325 C.E., when Emperor Constantine and church authorities purportedly banned problematic books that didn’t conform to their secret agenda.
Except that’s not how it really went. “The Da Vinci Code” was fiction, but Brown wasn’t the first to credit the Council of Nicea with deciding which books to include in the Bible. Voltaire, writing in the 18th century, repeated a centuries-old myth that the Bible was canonized in Nicea by placing all of the known books on a table, saying a prayer and seeing which illegitimate texts fell to the floor.
In truth, there was no single church authority or council that convened to rubber stamp the biblical canon (official list of books in the Bible), not at Nicea or anywhere else in antiquity, explains Jason Combs, an assistant professor at Brigham Young University specializing in ancient Christianity.
“Dan Brown did us all a disservice,” says Combs. “We don’t have evidence that any group of Christians got together and said, ‘Let’s hash this out once and for all.'” (The Council of Nicea was convened to resolve a religious matter unrelated to the books of the Bible.)
What evidence scholars do have — in the form of theological treatises, letters and church histories that have survived for millennia — points to a much longer process of canonization. From the first through the fourth centuries and beyond, different church leaders and theologians made arguments about which books belonged in the canon, often casting their opponents as heretics.
The books that make up the Bible were written by various people over a period of more than 1,000 years, between 1200 B.C.E. and the first century C.E. The Bible contains a variety of literary genres, including poetry, history, songs, stories, letters and prophetic writings. These were originally written on scrolls of parchment, as opposed to being encapsulated in “books” as we think of them today. (Remember, the printing press wasn’t invented until 1440.)
In the late 300s
Over time, the books that were deemed authentic and authoritative by the communities who used them were included in the canon and the rest were discarded. Although the bulk of that editing work ended in the late 300s, the debate over which books were theologically legit continued until at least the 16th century when church reformer Martin Luther published his German translation of the Bible.
Books of the Bible
Written under the supernatural guidance of the Holy Spirit by laymen and scholars, commoners and nobility, the Bible is as unique as it is profound, containing 66 ancient books that have shaped laws, influenced culture and inspired billions to faith over three millennia.
Divided into two parts, the Old Testament and the New Testament, the Bible is an essential historical and moral study for all, that is as relevant today as it ever was.
Thee Old Testament
1. Genesis. 2. Exodus. 3. Leviticus. 4. Numbers. 5. Deuteronomy. 6. Joshua. 7. Judges. 8. Ruth. 9. 1 Samuel. 10. 2 Samuel. 11. 1 Kings. 12. 2 Ki
13. 1 Chronicles. 14. 2 Chronicles. 15. Ezra. 16. Nehemiah. 17. Esther. 18. Job. 19. Psalms. 20. Proverbs. 21. Ecclesiastes. 22. Song of Songs .23. Isaiah
24. Jeremiah. 25. Lamentations. 26. Ezekiel. 27. Daniel. 28. Hosea. 29. Joel. 30. Amos. 31. Obadiah. 32. Jonah. 33. Micah. 34. Nahum. 35. Habakkuk
36. Zephaniah. 37. Haggai. 38. Zechariah. 39. Malachi
The New Testament is a collection of twenty-seven sacred books that centre on the life, death, resurrection and teachings of Jesus Christ.
40. Matthew. 41. Mark. 42. Luke. 43. John. 44. Acts. 45. Romans. 46. 1 Corinthians. 47. 2 Corinthians. 48. Galatians. 49. Ephesians. 50. Philippians
51. Colossians. 52. 1 Thessalonians. 53. 2 Thessalonians. 54. 1 Timothy. 55. 2 Timothy. 56. Titus. 57. Philemon. 58. Hebrews. 59. James. 60. 1 Peter
61. 2 Peter. 62. 1 John. 63. 2 John. 64. 3 John. 65. Jude. 66. Revelation
The books of Exodus and Numbers tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the Patriarchs, and who led the Hebrews out of captivity in Egypt. They wandered in the desert for forty years (during which time God gave the Ten Commandments to Moses) until a new generation would be ready to enter the Promised Land of Canaan. The books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy discuss the relationship between God and His chosen people, the Hebrews, and give details of the Law that regulated almost every aspect of Hebrew life.
The remainder of the books of the “Hebrew Bible” (the Christian “Old Testament”) are divided by Jews into the categories of Prophets and Writings, or, according to the Christian method of organization, into sections of Historical books, Wisdom books and Prophecy books.
Of the Wisdom books, Psalms, Proverbs, Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach contain many sayings of practical wisdom to help live a happy, successful and holy life; Job and Ecclesiastes deal with the weightier issues of the meaning of life, the existence of evil and our relationship with God; and the Song of Solomon is a love song glorifying romantic love between a man and woman (although it is sometimes interpreted allegorically as a story about the love of God for Israel or the Church).
How Many Books Were Removed From The Bible?
Even the Vatican church and even the Roman Catholic church have a very long history of deception and corruption. Aside from committing acts of genocide several centuries past from the Cathars to sexually abusing children in more contemporary times, it’s absolutely among the most corrupt organizations ever.
From the year 1611 that the Bible was translated out of Latin to English. Back then, the Bible comprised a total of 80 books along with also the past 14 books, which now have been excluded, composed the ending of the Old Testament
and were as follows:
- 1 Esdras
- 2 Esdras
- The rest of Esther
- The Wisdom of Solomon
- Baruch with the epistle Jeremiah
- The Songs of the 3 Holy children
- The history of Susana
- bel and the dragon
- The prayer for Manasses
- 1 Maccabees
- 2 Maccabees
How many books are in the original Bible?
It’s important to mention that not all Christian denominations consider the same books to be canon. Most Protestant Bibles have 66 books, 39 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament. The Roman Catholic Bible has 73 books including the seven known as the Apocrypha.
How many books are in the Old and New Testaments?
However, somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity and, in the fourth century, a series of Synods or church councils (notably the Council of Rome in 382 CE and the Synod of Hippo in 393 CE) produced a definitive list of texts which resulted in the current 46 book canon of the “Old …
How many books does the Bible have?
Except where stated, the following apply to the King James Version of the Bible in its modern 66-book Protestant form including the New Testament and the protocanonical Old Testament, not the deuterocanonical books.
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