is bread a potentially hazardous food

is bread a potentially hazardous food

is bread a potentially hazardous food

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Bread

It is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour (usually wheat) and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history and around the world, it has been an important part of many cultures’ diet. It is one of the oldest human-made foods, having been of significance since the dawn of agriculture, and plays an essential role in both religious rituals and secular culture.

In many countries, commercial bread often contains additives to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, nutrition, and ease of production.

is bread a potentially hazardous food
is bread a potentially hazardous food

Types

Bread is the staple food of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Europe, and in European-derived cultures such as those in the Americas, Australia, and Southern Africa. This is in contrast to parts of South and East Asia, where rice or noodles are the staple.

Bread is usually made from a wheat-flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven. The addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets commonly found in bread. Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world’s food supply of any food.

Bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including spelt, emmer, einkorn and kamut). Non-wheat cereals including rye, barley, maize (corn), oats, sorghum, millet and rice have been used to make bread, but, with the exception of rye, usually in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten.

Gluten-free breads are made using flours from a variety of ingredients such as almonds, rice, sorghum, corn, legumes such as beans, and tubers such as cassava. Since these foods lack gluten, dough made from them may not hold its shape as the loaves rise, and their crumb may be dense with little aeration. Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten.

History

Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe and Australia revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants. It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread.

Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally.

The Egyptians refined the process and started adding yeast to the flour.

Yeast

There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer, called barm, to produce “a lighter kind of bread than other peoples” such as barm cake.

The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter, as Pliny also reported. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans all considered the degree of refinement in the bakery arts as a sign of civilization.

1961

The Chorleywood bread process was developed in 1961; it uses the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the fermentation period and the time taken to produce a loaf. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value.

Properties

Rye bread contains phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers.

Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. Gliadin binds weakly to the gluten network established by glutenin via intrachain disulfide bonds. Structurally, bread can be defined as an elastic-plastic foam (same as styrofoam).

is bread a potentially hazardous food
is bread a potentially hazardous food

What does glutenin protein do?

It contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force. Acrylamide is neurotoxic, has adverse effects on male reproduction and developmental toxicity and is carcinogenic.

Culinary uses

Bread can be served at many temperatures; once baked, it can subsequently be toasted. It is most commonly eaten with the hands, either by itself or as a carrier for other foods. Bread can be spread with butter, dipped into liquids such as gravy, olive oil, or soup; it can be topped with various sweet and savory spreads, or used to make sandwiches containing meats, cheeses, vegetables, and condiments. 

Nutritional significance

Further, it is a good source of carbohydrates and nutrients such as magnesium, iron, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber.

Crust

The crust of most breads is harder, and more complexly and intensely flavored, than the rest. Old wives’ tales suggest that eating the bread crust makes a person’s hair curlier.

Some studies have shown that this is true as the crust has more dietary fiber and antioxidants such as pronyl-lysine, which is being researched for its potential colorectal cancer inhibitory properties.

Food Regulations in Australia and New Zealand

Regulating Food Safety – Food Manufacturing

Protection of public health and safety from foodborne illness is a priority of the food regulatory system. Within the national framework, each jurisdiction operates its own food regulatory system of food business notifications or registrations, inspections, licensing, auditing and compliance, and enforcement programs often informed by interagency-agreed national approaches.

The level of regulatory monitoring targeted to a food business is proportionate to the level of food safety risk determined for that food business sector, as detailed in a national risk classification framework (Department of Health and Ageing, 2007). A scoring system classifies food business sectors into risk or ‘priority’ categories based on their likelihood of contributing to foodborne disease and the associated potential impact.

The framework is science-based, applicable to the whole supply chain. Considers the biological, physical, and chemical hazards in processes. And it reflects inherent risks, the potential to control identified risks and outbreak histories. The inherent potential for pathogen outgrowth and survival forms the basis of the assessment with the probability of contamination considered separately.

is bread a potentially hazardous food
is bread a potentially hazardous food

processed foods

Non-potentially hazardous processed foods, except low acid canned and acidified foods, including. But they not limited to breads, cookies, fruit pies, cracked nuts, packaged spices and spice, dry cookie, cake, bread and soup mixes.

1.  High-risk foods may contain pathogenic microorganisms. And they will support formation of toxins or growth of pathogenic microorganisms. And they include raw meat, poultry and fish, unpasteurized milk, oysters, tofu, fresh-filled pasta, meat pies, as examples.
2.  Medium-risk foods may contain harmful natural toxins or chemicals introduced at earlier steps in the process. Or they may contain pathogens without the support required for growth. Or they unlikely to contain pathogens following processing but may support growth. And they include fresh fruits and vegetables, juices, pasteurized milk, canned foods, shell eggs, salami, vegetables in oil, and peanut butter.
3.  Low-risk foods are unlikely to contain pathogenic organisms and will not support the growth of pathogens. And unlikely to contain harmful chemicals or foreign matter. And they include grains, cereals, bread, carbonated beverages, dried foods, fats, alcohol, and oils.

Can you identify which foods are PHF?

Potentially hazardous food (PHF) means any food which consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry. Or consists rice ,fish, shellfish, edible crustacean, raw-seed sprouts, heat-treated vegetables and vegetable products. And consists other ingredients in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth.

Regarding this, what are the three main characteristics of potentially hazardous foods?

Potentially hazardous foods have certain characteristics that support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms or the production of toxins. Factors affecting microbial growth include the nutrients, moisture, acidity (pH) and gas atmosphere of the food.

What is a non potentially hazardous food?

Examples of non-potentially hazardous foods are: dry baked goods, breads, cookies, fruit pies, jams, jellies, preserves, fruit butters, honey, sorghum, cracked nuts, dried herbs, packaged spices and spice mixes, dry cookie, cake, bread, and soup mixes.

Examples of non-potentially hazardous foods are:

Dry baked goods, breads, cookies, fruit pies, jams, jellies, preserves, fruit butters, honey, sorghum, cracked nuts, dried herbs, packaged spices. And spice mixes, dry cookie, cake, bread, and soup mixes.

What are 4 potentially hazardous foods?

Examples of potentially hazardous foods include:

  • raw and cooked meat, or foods containing meat such as casseroles, curries and lasagne.
  • dairy products such as milk, custard and dairy‐based desserts.
  • seafood (excluding live seafood)
  • processed or cut fruits and vegetables, such as salads.
  • cooked rice and pasta.

Potentially hazardous food (PHF) means any food which consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, rice ,fish, shellfish, edible crustacean, raw-seed sprouts, heat-treated vegetables and vegetable products and other ingredients in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth.

is bread a potentially hazardous food
is bread a potentially hazardous food

Why is bread not a potentially hazardous food?

The pH or aw of bread and cakes are generally not low enough to classify the products as not potentially hazardous. However, other characteristic such as the dry protective crust mean that plain bread does not require refrigeration for food safety reasons.

Bread itself is not a PHF.

Shell Egg Pasteurization
Shell eggs are classified as a potentially hazardous food by the United States Food and Drug Administration.

What is not a potentially hazardous food?

Examples of non-potentially hazardous foods are:

Dry baked goods, breads, cookies, fruit pies, jams, jellies, preserves, fruit butters, honey, sorghum, cracked nuts, dried herbs, packaged spices. And spice mixes, dry cookie, cake, bread, and soup mixes.

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