is civil rights movement capitalized

is civil rights movement capitalized

 

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civil rights

civil rights, guarantees of equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law, regardless of race, religion, or other personal characteristics.

is civil rights movement capitalized
is civil rights movement capitalized

Examples of civil right

Examples of civil rights include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to government services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities.

Civil rights are an essential component of democracy; when individuals are being denied opportunities to participate in political society, they are being denied their civil rights.

In contrast to civil liberties, which are freedoms that are secured by placing restraints on government, civil rights are secured by positive government action, often in the form of legislation.

Civil rights laws attempt to guarantee full and equal citizenship for people who have traditionally been discriminated against on the basis of some group characteristic.

When the enforcement of civil rights is found by many to be inadequate,

a civil rights movement may emerge in order to call for equal application of the laws without discrimination.
Unlike other rights concepts, such as human rights or natural rights,

in which people acquire rights inherently, perhaps from God or nature, civil rights must be given and guaranteed by the power of the state.

Therefore, they vary greatly over time, culture, and form of government and tend to follow societal trends that condone or abhor particular types of discrimination. For example, the civil rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community have only recently come to the forefront of political debate in some Western democracies.

is civil rights movement capitalized
is civil rights movement capitalized

 

The American civil rights movement

 

Civil rights politics in the United States has its roots in the movement to end discrimination against African Americans. Though slavery was abolished and former slaves were officially granted political rights after the Civil War, in most Southern states African Americans continued to be systematically disenfranchised and excluded from public life, leading them to become perpetual second-class citizens.

By the 1950s the marginalization of African Americans, often taking an extremely violent form, had spurred a social movement of epic proportions. The American civil rights movement,

based mainly in African American churches and colleges of the South, involved marches, boycotts, and extensive efforts of civil disobedience, such as sit-ins, as well as voter education and voting drives.

Most of these efforts were local in scope, but the impact was felt at the national level—a model of civil rights organizing that has since spread all over the globe.

 

Civil rights movements across the globe

In the 1960s the Roman Catholic-led civil rights movement in Northern Ireland was inspired by events in the United States. Its initial focus was fighting discriminatory gerrymandering that had been securing elections for Protestant unionists.

Later, internment of Catholic activists by the British government sparked both a civil disobedience campaign and the more radical strategies of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), resulting in the violent sectarian conflict that became known as the Troubles (1968–98).

 

A high-profile civil rights movement led to the end of the South African system of racial segregation known as apartheid. The resistance movement began in the 1940s and intensified in the 1950s and ’60s,

when civil rights as a concept was sweeping the globe, but it was forced underground as most of its leaders were imprisoned, and it did not regain strength until the 1980s. International pressure combined with internal upheaval led to the eventual lifting of the ban on the African National Congress,

the major Black party in South Africa, and the release from prison of Nelson Mandela in 1990. Mandela later became the first Black president of South Africa, in 1994.

is civil rights movement capitalized
is civil rights movement capitalized

 

a more recent movement

A more recent movement that has striking parallels to both the American civil rights movement and the South African struggle against apartheid is the civil disobedience and political activism of the Dalits in India. The Dalits—formerly known as “untouchables” and now officially designated Scheduled Castes—constitute some one-sixth of the Indian population.

However, for centuries they were forced to live as second-class citizens, and many were not even considered to be a part of India’s varna system of social hierarchy.

Dalit activism, including the efforts of Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, led to great victories,

including the election of Kocheril Raman Narayanan to the presidency. The fact that the president of India is elected by parliament, whose members come principally from the upper castes, underlines how much the mentality has changed.

In addition to these international movements

In addition to these international movements, many groups in the United States have been inspired by the successes of the American civil rights movement to fight for government protections,

with varying degrees of success. Most notably, women, having gained the right to vote in 1920 via constitutional amendment, also have made many gains in the area of employment rights.

The women’s rights movement has thus far been stopped short of passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, which would have codified equal rights for women in the U.S. Constitution.

Since its failure to be ratified in 1982, women have seen many gains in court decisions that ruled against sex discrimination and have seen the passing of legislation such as the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which established a commission designed to investigate the persistence of the “glass ceiling” that has prevented women from advancing to top management positions in the workplace.

the focus of civil rights

A number of other groups were the focus of civil rights movements since the 1960s. In 1968 the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act. Latinos and Asian Americans fought for increased civil rights based on a history of discrimination over race, religion, language, and immigrant status. There were some successes in the form of provisions for bilingual education and affirmative action programs.

More recently, Arab Americans and the LGBTQ community took centre stage in the struggle to achieve equal protection and equal opportunity in American society. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Arab Americans suffered from heightened levels of discrimination and hate crimes and had to conform to government policies that restricted their liberties, as codified in the controversial USA PATRIOT Act of 2001.

civil rights, guarantees of equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law, regardless of race, religion, or other personal characteristics.

The gay rights movement

The gay rights movement made some major gains in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Some states allowed same-sex marriage, and others granted benefits to same-sex civil partnerships, but at the beginning of the 21st century the majority of the U.S. population opposed same-sex marriage.

Moreover, some social conservatives in the U.S. demanded a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. By 2010, however, about half of the U.S. population supported legalization of same-sex marriage, and, in June 2015 in its decision on the Obergefell v. Hodges case, the Supreme Court ruled that state bans on same-sex marriage and on recognizing same-sex marriages duly performed in other jurisdictions were unconstitutional under the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, thereby legalizing same-sex marriage in all 50 states.

Almost all countries actively deny civil rights to some minority groups.

Because civil rights are enforced by countries, it is difficult to establish an international standard for civil rights protection, despite the efforts of international governance bodies such as the United Nations.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, includes civil rights language but is not binding on member states.

Civil rights tend to increase as governments feel pressure, either from national movements or other countries, to enact change.

is civil rights movement capitalized
is civil rights movement capitalized

Delhi Pact

Delhi Pact, also called Nehru-Liaquat Pact, pact made on April 8, 1950, following the escalation of tension between India and Pakistan in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) after economic relations between the two countries had been severed in December 1949. An estimated one million people—Hindus from East Pakistan and Muslims from West Bengal—crossed the borders during 1950.

In spite of the opposition of his colleague Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister of India, concluded a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan, prime minister of Pakistan, whereby refugees were allowed to return unmolested to dispose of their property, abducted women and looted property were to be returned, forced conversions were unrecognized, and minority rights were confirmed. Minority commissions were established to implement these terms, and confidence was in fact restored for a time; however, in the months following the pact, more than a million additional refugees migrated to West Bengal. The continuing struggle over Kashmir also strained relations between the two countries.

 

 

 

 

General capitalization rules

General capitalization rules of the English language state that proper nouns are always capitalized. Examples of proper nouns include names of people, organizations and major events. For instance, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the formal name of the government agency and is hence capitalized. The same goes for historical events, such as the French Revolution or World War II. The names of movements are a bit trickier, however.

For instance, Romantic, when referring to the 19th-century literary style is only capitalized when there is a possibility it could be confused with the adjective romantic, which means a person characterized by an idealistic view of reality.

 

So, Is the “Civil Rights Movement” Capitalized?

According to this rule, there would be no case where the phrase “civil rights movement” would be capitalized, as it has no synonym and refers to no single organization, but an array of movements brought together by a loose common cause.

 

What About Capitalizing “Civil Rights”?

Similarly, “civil rights” is an umbrella term for an expanding set of rights designed to protect individuals from governmental oppression. There’s no unified program that can be called civil rights, and the term has historically meant different things to different groups of people, so it is thus lowercase in a sentence.

Though different capitalization styles can be found even in academic publications, when in doubt, one should always consult a style guide they’ve chosen to write in. When it comes to “civil rights movement” and “civil rights”, three of the most widely used style guides, the MLA, the Associated Press Style Guide and the Chicago Manual of Style are all in agreement:

these phrases are not to be capitalized.

The Associated Press and the Chicago Manual of Style state no reason for this recommendation, whereas the MLA style guide states that the general trend in modern editorial style leans toward reducing capitalization to a minimum.

When Are “Civil Rights” and “Civil Rights Movement” Capitalized?

These phrases are capitalized when used in a title. According to standard title capitalization rules, only prepositions and conjunctions are usually lowercase.

Is civil right activist capitalized?

In the prose that crosses my desk I regularly find references to the Civil Rights Movement, always capitalized. I checked the Corpus of Contemporary American English, which shows a mixture: civil rights movement, Civil Rights movement, Civil Rights Movement—though the lowercase term is overwhelmingly dominant.

 

Do you capitalize the names of art movements?

 

The names of art movements or periods of art can be capitalized to distinguish them as references to a particular body of work whose visual and/or chronological definitions are generally accepted.

What is Capitalization?

Capitalization is the recordation of a cost as an asset, rather than an expense. This approach is used when a cost is not expected to be entirely consumed in the current period, but rather over an extended period of time.

For example, office supplies are expected to be consumed in the near future, so they are charged to expense at once. An automobile is recorded as a fixed asset and charged to expense over a much longer period through depreciation, since the vehicle will be consumed over a longer period of time than office supplies.
Capitalization is also based on the concept of materiality.

If a cost is too small, it is charged to expense at once, rather than bothering with a series of accounting calculations and journal entries to capitalize it and then gradually charge it to expense over time.

 

capitalization limit

The specific dollar amount below which items are automatically charged to expense is called the capitalization limit, or cap limit. The cap limit is used to keep record keeping down to a manageable level, while still capitalizing the bulk of all items that should be designated as fixed assets.
Capitalization is used heavily in asset-intensive environments, such as manufacturing,

where depreciation can be a large part of total expenses. Conversely, capitalization may be extremely rare in a services industry, especially when the cap limit is set high enough to avoid the recordation of personal computers and laptops as fixed assets.
If a company constructs fixed assets, the interest cost of any borrowed funds used to pay for the construction can also be capitalized and recorded as part of the underlying fixed assets.

This step is usually only taken for substantial construction projects.
Capitalization can be used as a tool to commit financial statement reporting fraud.

If costs are capitalized that should have been charged to expense, current income is inflated, at the expense of future periods over which additional depreciation will now be charged. This practice can be spotted by comparing cash flows to net income; cash flows should be substantially lower than net income.
The “capitalization” term also refers to the market value of a business.

It is calculated as the total number of shares outstanding, multiplied by the current market price of the stock. It can also be defined as the sum of a company’s stock, retained earnings, and long-term debt.

In accounting, the cost of an item is allocated to the cost of an asset, as opposed to being an expense, if the company expects to consume that item over a long period of time. Rather than being expensed, the cost of the item or fixed asset is capitalized and amortized or depreciated over its useful life.

Typical examples of corporate capitalized costs are items of property

Typical examples of corporate capitalized costs are items of property, plant, and equipment.

For example, if a company buys a machine, building, or computer, the cost would not be expensed but would be capitalized as a fixed asset on the balance sheet.

Other expenses associated with constructing a fixed asset can also be capitalized.

These include materials, sales taxes, labor, transportation, and interest incurred to finance the construction of the asset. Intangible asset expenses can also be capitalized, such as trademarks, filing and defending patents, and software development.

Capitalization Eligibility
To capitalize cost, a company must derive economic benefit from assets beyond the current year and use the items in the normal course of its operations. For example, inventory cannot be a capital asset since companies ordinarily expect to sell their inventories within a year.

Because capitalized costs are depreciated or amortized over a certain number of years, their effect on the company’s income statement is not immediate and, instead, is spread out throughout the asset’s useful life. Usually, the cash effect from incurring capitalized costs is immediate with all subsequent amortization or depreciation expenses being non-cash charges.

Understanding How to Capitalize

One of the most important principles of accounting is the matching principle.

The matching principle states that expenses should be recorded for the period incurred regardless of when payment (e.g., cash) is made.

Recognizing expenses in the period incurred allows businesses to identify amounts spent to generate revenue. For assets that are immediately consumed, this process is simple and sensible.

However, large assets that provide a future economic benefit present a different opportunity.

For example, a company purchases a delivery truck for daily operations.

The truck is expected to provide value over a period of 12 years. Instead of expensing the entire cost of the truck when purchased, accounting rules allow companies to write off the cost of the asset over its useful life (12 years).

In other words, the asset is written off as it is used.

Most companies have an asset threshold, in which assets valued over a certain amount are automatically treated as a capitalized asset.

Benefits of Capitalization

Capitalizing assets has many benefits. Because long-term assets are costly, expensing the cost over future periods reduces significant fluctuations in income, especially for small firms. Many lenders require companies to maintain a specific debt-to-equity ratio. If large long-term assets were expensed immediately, it could compromise the required ratio for existing loans or could prevent firms from receiving new loans.

Also, capitalizing expenses increases a company’s asset balance without affecting its liability balance. As a result, many financial ratios will appear favorable. Despite this benefit, it should not be the motivation for capitalizing an expense.

 

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