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“Things that goes up and down”
elevator, also called lift, car that moves in a vertical shaft to carry passengers or freight between the levels of a multistory building. Most modern elevators are propelled by electric motors,
with the aid of a counterweight, through a system of cables and sheaves (pulleys). By opening the way to higher buildings, the elevator played a decisive role in creating the characteristic urban geography of many modern cities, especially in the United States, and promises to fill an indispensable role in future city development.
The practice of lifting loads by mechanical means during building operations goes back at least to Roman times; the Roman architect-engineer Vitruvius in the 1st century BC described lifting platforms that used pulleys and capstans, or windlasses, operated by human, animal, or water power.
Steam power was applied to such devices in England by 1800.
In the early 19th century a hydraulic lift was introduced, in which the platform was attached to a plunger in a cylinder sunk in the ground below the shaft to a depth equal to the shaft’s height. Pressure was applied to the fluid in the cylinder by a steam pump.
Later a combination of sheaves was used to multiply the car’s motion and reduce the depth of the plunger. All these devices employed counterweights to balance the weight of the car, requiring only enough power to raise the load.
Prior to the mid-1850s, these principles were primarily applied to freight hoists.
The poor reliability of the ropes (generally hemp) used at that time made such lifting platforms unsatisfactory for passenger use. When an American, Elisha Graves Otis, introduced a safety device in 1853,
he made the passenger elevator possible.
Otis’ device, demonstrated at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York, incorporated a clamping arrangement that gripped the guide rails on which the car moved when tension was released from the hoist rope. The first passenger elevator was put into service in the Haughwout Department Store in New York City in 1857; driven by steam power, it climbed five stories in less than a minute and was a pronounced success.
Improved versions of the steam-driven elevator appeared in the next three decades
but no significant advance took place until the introduction of the electric motor for elevator operation in the mid-1880s and the first commercial installation of an electric passenger elevator in 1889.
This installation, in the Demarest Building in New York City, utilized an electric motor to drive a winding drum in the building’s basement.
The introduction of electricity led to two further advances: in 1894 push-button controls were introduced, and in 1895 a hoisting apparatus was demonstrated in England that applied the power to the sheave (pulley) at the top of the shaft; the weights of the car and counterweight sufficed to guarantee traction. By removing the limitations imposed by the winding drum, the traction-drive mechanism made possible taller shafts and greater speeds.
In 1904 a “gearless” feature was added by attaching the drive sheave directly to the armature of the electric motor, making speed virtually unlimited.
Balls also go up and down !
A ball is a round object (usually spherical, but can sometimes be ovoid) with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players.
Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch or juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide very low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use stone and metal balls as projectiles.
Although many types of balls are today made from rubber, this form was unknown outside the Americas until after the voyages of Columbus.
The Spanish were the first Europeans to see the bouncing rubber balls (although solid and not inflated) which were employed most notably in the Mesoamerican ballgame.
Balls used in various sports in other parts of the world prior to Columbus were made from other materials such as animal bladders or skins, stuffed with various materials.
As balls are one of the most familiar spherical objects to humans, the word “ball” may refer to or describe spherical or near-spherical objects.
“Ball” is used metaphorically sometimes to denote something spherical or spheroid, e.g., armadillos and human beings curl up into a ball, we make a ball with our fist.
Ladders go up and down !
In their rawest forms, ladders are a set of steps (or rungs) joined together by a pole on either side. For centuries, ladders have been a simple yet effective climbing tool, used all over the world in construction,
agriculture and around the home.
There are a lot of things that wouldn’t have existed if it wasn’t for the humble ladder, so today we’re going to take a deep dive into the history of ladders. If you want to join us for a trip back in time, just keep reading!
Ladders date back such a long time that it’s hard to pinpoint the exact time or century that they were invented. That being said, the earliest evidence of ladders that we have can be found in the Spider Caves in Valencia, Spain. Here, you will find a painting of a ladder that’s been etched on to the Mesolithic rock for over 10,000 years! The ladder in question appears to be flexible, made of tightly bound grass or plant material, and is being used by two men to access a honeybee nest to collect honey.
While 10,000 years may seem like a long time to us
there’s a lot of research that suggests ladders have been used for much longer than this. Lots of researchers suggest that both ancient Hebrew and Egyptian people will have used ladders to carry out a range of different tasks. Without them, we may not have some of the beautiful ancient architecture,
like the Pyramids, that we are able to study today. Ladders were even mentioned in the Bible by Jacob, who dreamt of a ladder that reached from earth to Heaven.
Skipping forwards a few thousand years,
and we can see when the first patent for a folding wooden step ladder came into existence.
This patent was obtained by an American man called John H. Balsley on the 7th January 1862.
Thanks to Mr Balsley, foldable ladders which could be easily transported from place to place became widely available.
This made it much easier for people to pack up their height access equipment and travel with it.
For a long time, the only ladders that people could build or buy were made of natural materials like wood.
Widespread use of aluminium ladders didn’t happen until the early 19th century.
Prior to this, there was no way for ladder manufacturers of extracting enough aluminium out of the ground! For a long time, aluminium was higher in value than gold, but nowadays, aluminium ladders are easy to get hold of and won’t cost you an arm and a leg.
Waves(name something that goes up and down)
In physics, mathematics, and related fields, a wave is a propagating dynamic disturbance (change from equilibrium) of one or more quantities, sometimes as described by a wave equation. In physical waves, at least two field quantities in the wave medium are involved. Waves can be periodic,
in which case those quantities oscillate repeatedly about an equilibrium (resting) value at some frequency. When the entire waveform moves in one direction it is said to be a traveling wave; by contrast, a pair of superimposed periodic waves traveling in opposite directions makes a standing wave.
In a standing wave, the amplitude of vibration has nulls at some positions where the wave amplitude appears smaller or even zero.
The types of waves(name something that goes up and down)
The types of waves most commonly studied in classical physics are mechanical and electromagnetic. In a mechanical wave, stress and strain fields oscillate about a mechanical equilibrium.
A mechanical wave is a local deformation (strain) in some physical medium that propagates from particle to particle by creating local stresses that cause strain in neighboring particles too.
sound waves are variations of the local pressure and particle motion that propagate through the medium. Other examples of mechanical waves are seismic waves, gravity waves, surface waves, string vibrations (standing waves), and vortices. In an electromagnetic wave (such as light), coupling between the electric and magnetic fields which sustains propagation of a wave involving these fields according to Maxwell’s equations. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum and through some dielectric media (at wavelengths where they are considered transparent).
Electromagnetic waves, according to their frequencies (or wavelengths) have more specific designations including radio waves, infrared radiation, terahertz waves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and air.
For special tasks, balloons can be filled with smoke, liquid water, granular media (e.g. sand, flour or rice), or light sources. Modern day balloons are made from materials such as rubber, latex, polychloroprene, or a nylon fabric,
and can come in many different colors. Some early balloons were made of dried animal bladders, such as the pig bladder. Some balloons are used for decorative purposes or entertaining purposes,
however others are used for practical purposes such as meteorology, medical treatment, military defense, or transportation. A balloon’s properties, including its low density and low cost, have led to a wide range of applications.
The word “rocket” can mean different things. Most people think of a tall, thin, round vehicle. They think of a rocket that launches into space. “Rocket” can mean a type of engine. The word also can mean a vehicle that uses that engine.
When Were Rockets Invented?(name something that goes up and down)
The first rockets we know about were used in China in the 1200s. These solid rockets were used for fireworks. Armies also used them in wars. In the next 700 years, people made bigger and better solid rockets. Many of these were used for wars too. In 1969, the United States launched the first men to land on the moon using a Saturn V rocket.