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While most aerobic respiration (with oxygen) takes place in the cell’s mitochondria, and anaerobic respiration (without oxygen) takes place within the cell’s cytoplasm.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy because weak high-energy bonds, in particular in molecular oxygen, are replaced by stronger bonds in the products.
Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, some of which are redox reactions. Although cellular respiration is technically a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow, controlled release of energy from the series of reactions.
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent providing most of the chemical energy is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (the bond of its third phosphate group to the rest of the molecule can be broking allowing more stable products to form, thereby releasing energy for use by the cell) can then use to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transport of molecules across cell membranes.
Cellular Respiration Equation
Aerobic Respiration Equation
The equation for aerobic respiration shows glucose being combined with oxygen and ADP to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP:
C6H12O6 (glucose)+ 6O2 + 36 ADP (depleted ATP) + 36 Pi (phosphate groups)→ 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
You can see that once it is completely broking down, the carbon molecules of glucose are exhaling as six molecules of carbon dioxide.
Lactic Acid Fermentation Equation
In lactic acid fermentation, one molecule of glucose is broking down into two molecules of lactic acid. The chemical energy that was storing in the broken glucose bonds is moving into bonds between ADP and a phosphate group.
C6H12O6 (glucose) + 2 ADP (depleted ATP) + 2 Pi (phosphate groups) → 2 CH3CHOHCOOH (lactic acid) + 2 ATP
Alcoholic Fermentation Equation
Alcohol fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation in that oxygen is not the final electron acceptor. Here, instead of oxygen, the cell uses a converted form of pyruvate to accept the final electrons. This creates ethyl alcohol, which is what is finding in alcoholic beverages. Brewers and distillers use yeast cells to create this alcohol, which are very good at this form of fermentation.
C6H12O6 (glucose) + 2 ADP (depleted ATP) + 2 Pi (phosphate groups)→ 2 C2H5OH (ethyl alcohol) + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP
Do plants do cellular respiration?
Plants have mitochondria and can perform cellular respiration. When would plants need to release energy by cellular respiration? Plants would release energy through cellular respiration in times when sunlight is not present.
How your body performs cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration in humans starts in the digestive and respiratory systems. The cells use the glucose and oxygen from the circulatory system for energy production. They deliver the waste product, carbon dioxide, back to the red blood cells and the carbon dioxide is releasing to the atmosphere through the lungs.
Where is cellular respiration in prokaryotes?
Prokaryotic cells carry out cellular respiration within the cytoplasm or on the inner surfaces of the cells. More emphasis here will be placed on eukaryotic cells where the mitochondria are the site of most of the reactions.
Many prokaryotes, small simple cells like bacteria, can perform aerobic cellular respiration. These cells will move electrons back and forth across their cell membrane. Other types of prokaryotes cannot use oxygen to perform cellular respiration, so they perform anaerobic respiration.
Beside above, what is the site of cellular respiration in eukaryotes? mitochondria
Also Know, how is cellular respiration different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms get the energy they need to grow and maintain normal cellular function through cellular respiration. In eukaryotes, most cellular respiration reactions take place within the mitochondria. In prokaryotes, they occur in the cytoplasm and/or within the cell membrane.
Which organelle is the site of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells?
The “powerhouses” of the cell, mitochondria are oval-shaping organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. As the site of cellular respiration, mitochondria serve to transform molecules such as glucose into an energy molecule known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Does eukaryotic cells do cellular respiration?
Eukaryotic cells generally use aerobic respiration – requiring oxygen – to produce usable energy called ATP from glucose molecules. This type of respiration mostly takes place in specialized organelles called mitochondria. Prokaryotic cells, on the other hand, tend to use anaerobic respiration – not requiring oxygen.
What is the powerhouse of the cell Why?
Cells use a special molecule for energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Thus, Mitochondria are calling the powerhouse of the cell. They call so because they produce ATP, an energy-dense molecule responsible for powering most cellular processes in a living organism.
What is nucleus in the cell?
The powerhouse function
When the breakdown products from the digestion of food find their way into the cell, a series of chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm. This allows some of the energy locked up in these products to be released and incorporated into the universal energy supplier in cells known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Remaining molecular fragments from this process then enter the mitochondria, and in a complex series of steps, they are finally converted into carbon dioxide and water. The energy locked up in these fragments incorporate into more ATP.
The ATP molecules produced in this way can then be used by the cell to supply the energy needed to function. ATP → ADP + P + energy to function.
The overall chemical reaction that occurs when glucose is broken down is:
|energy in the form of
It estimates that, in an average person, the turnover rate (the rate at which ATP is producing and consuming) is a massive 65 kg per day.
The human body is a fantastically energetic machine. It has been estimated that, kilogram for kilogram, the human body, when sitting comfortably, is converting 10,000 times more energy than the Sun in every second!
The efficiency of cell respiration
Nothing is perfectly efficient in this world. Even your car engine is only about 25% efficient at best. Only about 25% of the burned gasoline goes toward moving your car while the other 75% is giving off as heat which is why your engine and exhaust systems are very, very hot.
Some nifty numbers here: There’s 686kcal (686,000 calories) in a mole of glucose. The actual usable energy obtainable from the 38 ATP molecules that may produce from this glucose is 288,800 calories (38 x 7,600 calories per ATP).
Therefore, the complete oxidation of glucose is only about 40% efficient (288/686). The other 60% goes off as heat. It’s impossible to convert one form of energy into another without creating heat. This release of heat is predicted by the law of thermodynamics. In other words, approximately 40% of the energy that’s created is used to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.
Furthermore, this reaction explains why the temperature of your body is almost 100°F. If you start to exercise, cellular respiration starts to speed up inside your muscle cells to produce more ATP, so your body starts breaking down sugars at a faster rate, you breathe oxygen at a faster rate and exhale carbon dioxide at a faster rate and give off a lot more heat at the same time.
Where does most ATP production take place within a cell?
Most of the ATP in cells is producing by the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP. ATP synthase locates in the membrane of cellular structures called mitochondria; in plant cells, the enzyme also finds in chloroplasts.
Which cell contain the most ATP?
The large amount of energy released is harnessing by the inner membrane to drive the conversion of ADP + Pi to ATP. For this reason, the term oxidative phosphorylation is using to describe this last series of reactions (Figure 14-11).