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speed tyrannosaurus rex
Tyrannosaurus rex: 27 km/h
tyrannosaurus max speed
How fast can T Rex run Jurassic Park?
tyrannosaurus walking speed
New Study Finds T. Rex Walked at a Slow Pace of Three Miles Per Hour
Dutch researchers calculated the surprising speed of the dinosaur based on 3-D reconstructions of its lengthy tail
On the big screen, the Tyrannosaurus rex is often depicted as a predator that could easily catch up to a speeding car with a few swift stomps.
That’s probably because paleontologists had suggested that the T. rex clocked a top speed of 30 miles per hour.
and a walking speed between 4.5 and 6.7 miles per hour, reports Jeff Spry for SYFY Wire.
Now, researchers from the Netherlands have used computer reconstructions of a T. rex tail to estimate that the walking speed of the carnivore was much slower.
According to the new study published in Royal Society Open Science, the predators walked at just under 3 miles per hour, reports Katie Hunt for CNN.
T. rex were based on research that centered only on the prehistoric
Previous walking estimates of the T. rex were based on research that centered only on the prehistoric reptile’s meaty hips and legs, reports Mindy Weisberger for Live Science.
However, to find the walking speed of the T. rex, the researchers of the new study focused on the vertical movement of the tyrant lizard king’s tail.
While calculations on the hips and legs are essential, estimating walking speed only on some parts of the dinosaur’s anatomy may give inaccurate results, CNN reports.
Dinosaurs overall had unique tails that are not found in any other animals today and may have played a crucial role in the way they walked.
When walking, the T. rex would have had its tail suspended in the air. In this position known as “passive suspension,” the dinosaur’s tail would have actively bounced vertically with each step.
“Dinosaur tails were vital to the way they moved around, in multiple ways,” Pasha van Bijlert, a graduate student at the Free University of Amsterdam and first author of the study, tells Live Science.
“Not only does it serve as a counter balance, the tail also produces a lot of the required force to move the body forward.
It does this through two large tail muscles—the caudofemoral muscles—that pull the legs backwards during each step.”
Naturalis Biodiversity Center
To calculate how the tail propelled the T. rex, the researchers used an adult T. rex specimen at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden known as “Trix.”
They scanned and modeled Trix’s tail bones to find where the ligaments would have been attached and then used a computer model to simulate how these ligaments would have moved while the dinosaur walked, reports Live Science.
The paleontologists found that the ligaments stretched to create the vertical bounce .
and held the dinosaur’s suspended tail in a way that did not use up extra energy.
The T. rex, they concluded, would walk in a way that matched the speed of its swaying tail, reports Bryan Lawver for Inverse.
The tail model
“The tail model gives you a likely step frequency/rhythm for T. rex, but you also need to know how much distance it travels with each step,” van Bijlert told Live Science.
Researchers combined the tails swaying rhythm with an estimated step length obtained from another T. rex fossil’s footprints.
Inverse reports. They estimated that Trix’s step length would have been 6.2 feet.
and then multiplied that by the step frequency and step length to get a walking speed of 2.86 miles per hour, Live Science reports. Per Inverse, this speed is within the walking speed ranges for other animals and humans.
Studying how dinosaurs moved can help paleontologists further understand dinosaur behavior and how they thrived in their prehistoric ecosystems, CNN reports.
In future studies, the researchers plan to use this method to calculate the top speed of a T. rex when it’s sprinting.
Other researchers have surmised that the heavy body of a T. rex, weighing between 11,000 to 15,000 pounds, hindered its running speed.
However, van Bijlert suspects that the dinosaur’s tail may have absorbed the shock in a way that made it able to run faster without breaking any bones, Live Science reports.
Tyrannosaurus Rex Was Not A Fast Runner, More A Slow Walker, Simulation Shows
It is one of the most iconic scenes in the 1993 movie Jurassic Park: our heroes try to escape a running Tyrannosaurus rex on a jeep speeding up to 32 miles per hour, and they still must go faster.
Researchers have been debating over the speed of dinosaurs for years.
Estimates of dinosaur speeds vary because several different methods are used to calculate them.
The two basic approaches for estimating dinosaur speed are comparing to recorded speeds of modern animals of similar body size and build.
and measuring distances between fossil footprints in a trackway .
and using these distances to calculate estimated speed.
Now modern computer technology allows scientists to create virtual copies of animals.
providing new insights into the locomotion capabilities of extinct organisms.
Some studies have pushed for a “fast-running” T. rex hypothesis, claiming that the dinosaur may have been capable of speeds over 20 meters per second .
(45 miles per hour). More recent research calculating the forces acting on a T. rex’s limb bones has suggested a more moderate pace around 5 to 11 meters per second.
(15 to 25 miles per hour). Any kind of running faster would have broken this bipedal dinosaur’s legs.
New computer simulation
Just for comparison – Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt holds the world record for fastest human footspeed, clocking in at just under 28 miles per hour in 100 and 200 meter dashes.
New computer simulations based on tail movement show that Tyrannosaurus was a slow walker, making just 1.3 meters per second .
(3 miles per hour). The average walking speed of a human is 3 to 4 miles per hour.
Researchers from the Netherlands used the simulated resonance frequency of body parts to clock their T.rex named Trix. Trix is a Tyrannosaurus rex specimen excavated in 2013 in Montana.
USA by a team of paleontologists from the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden in the Netherlands. This Tyrannosaurus, over thirty years old .
the oldest known Tyrannosaurus specimen – lived over 67 million years ago.
It has been considered the third most complete Tyrannosaurus skeleton found, with between 75% to 80% of its bone volume recovered.