what is julius caesar’s nickname
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ulius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? BCE, Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 BCE, Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 BCE), victor in the civil war of 49–45 BCE, and dictator (46–44 BCE), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.
Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Romanlife decisively and irreversibly. The Greco-Roman society has been extinct for so long that most of the names of its great men mean little to the average, educated modern person. But Caesar’s name, like Alexander’s, is still on people’s lips throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. Even people who know nothing of Caesar as a historic personality are familiar with his family name as a title signifying a ruler who is in some sense uniquely supreme or paramount—the meaning of Kaiser in German, tsar in the Slavonic languages, and qayṣar in the languages of the Islamic world.
Caesar, Kaiser, and Czar
To begin with, “Caesar” was a family name. Now, in various forms, it is a generic term for “ruler” or “emperor.”
In Roman naming practice, a newborn child was given three names (tria nomina). The praenomen was a name like Lucius or Marcus. The second name was the name of the tribe, clan, or gens, such as the Julii or Cornelii. The third name was the cognomen, a nickname that distinguished one branch of a gens from another. Sometimes an adult would adopt a fourth name called an agnomen. This was a nickname he had earned himself.
Caesar was the cognomen of the family to which the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar was born. Its origin has been explained in various ways:
The cognomen “Caesar” originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarian section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum). The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favoured this interpretation of his name. (Wikipeda)
Family background and career
Caesar’s gens, the Julii, were patricians—i.e., members of Rome’s original aristocracy, which had coalesced in the 4th century BCE with a number of leading plebeian (commoner) families to form the nobility that had been the governing class in Rome since then. By Caesar’s time, the number of surviving patrician gentes was small; and in the gens Julia the Caesares seem to have been the only surviving family. Though some of the most powerful noble families were patrician, patrician blood was no longer a political advantage; it was actually a handicap, since a patrician was debarred from holding the paraconstitutional but powerful office of tribune of the plebs. The Julii Caesares traced their lineage back to the goddess Venus, but the family was not snobbish or conservative-minded. It was also not rich or influential or even distinguished.
A Roman noble won distinction for himself and his family by securing election to a series of public offices, which culminated in the consulship, with the censorship possibly to follow. This was a difficult task for even the ablest and most gifted noble unless he was backed by substantial family wealth and influence. Rome’s victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE) had made Rome the paramount power in the Mediterranean basin; an influential Roman noble family’s clients (that is, protégés who, in return, gave their patrons their political support) might include kings and even whole nations, besides numerous private individuals.
The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul
The value of the consulship lay in the lucrative provincial governorship to which it would normally lead. On the eve of the consular elections for 59 BCE, the Senate sought to allot to the two future consuls for 59 BCE, as their proconsular provinces, the unprofitable supervision of forests and cattle trails in Italy. The Senate also secured by massive bribery the election of an anti-Caesarean, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. But they failed to prevent Caesar’s election as the other consul.
Caesar now succeeded in organizing an irresistible coalition of political bosses. Pompey had carried out his mission to put the East in order with notable success, but after his return to Italy and his disbandment of his army in 62 BCE, the Senate had thwarted him—particularly by preventing him from securing land allotments for his veterans. Caesar, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey’s friendship, now entered into a secret pact with him. Caesar’s master stroke was to persuade Crassus to join the partnership, the so-called first triumvirate.
Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 BCE
During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome.
Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. Pompey had soon become restive toward his alarmingly successful ally Caesar, as had Crassus toward his old enemy Pompey. The alliance was patched up in April 56 BCE at a conference at Luca (Lucca), just inside Caesar’s province of Cisalpine Gaul. It was arranged that Pompey and Crassus were to be the consuls for 55 BCE and were to get laws promulgated prolonging Caesar’s provincial commands for another five years and giving Crassus a five-year term in Syria and Pompey a five-year term in Spain.
Personality and reputation of Julius Caesar
Caesar was not and is not lovable. His generosity to defeated opponents, magnanimous though it was, did not win their affection. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. Yet, though not lovable, Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. His political achievement required ability, in effect amounting to genius, in several different fields, including administration and generalship besides the minor arts of wire pulling and propaganda.
In all these, Caesar was a supreme virtuoso. But if he had not also been something more than this he would not have been the supremely great man that he undoubtedly was.
What type of leader was Caesar?
Gaius Julius Caesar was a crafty military leader who rose through the ranks of the Roman Republic, ultimately declaring himself dictator for life and shaking the foundations of Rome itself.
What leadership qualities did Julius Caesar have?
One of Caesar’s best qualities as a leader was his ability to connect with his men. Reportedly, he knew his centurions by name and made the effort to develop personal relationships with them. He also trained with them, which was a way he created rapport with his troops.
Was Julius Caesar a democratic leader?
When Caesar became dictator for life, he ended the democracy of the Roman Republic. Rome had been a democracy for over 400 years. Julius Caesar was a military general and statesman during the Roman Republic. He had a profound impact on Western civilization as a military leader, politician, writer and historian.
What made Julius Caesar such a popular leader?
He became very prominent in Rome because of his lavish expenditure and oratory. Caesar also forged a political alliance with Crassus, one of Rome’s richest men. The ambitious young politician was later elected Pontifex Maximus (chief priest) of Rome and secured for himself the governor’s governorship in Spain.
Is Julius Caesar a hero or tyrant?
Caesar was a great politician, general and statesman – but he was no hero. He conquered the Gauls, slaughtered a lot of people just to get some glory.
Why is Julius Caesar considered a tragedy?
Julius Caesar is a tragedy, as it tells the story of an honorable hero who makes several critical errors of judgment by misreading people and events, leading to his own death and a bloody civil war that consumes his nation.
What was Julius Caesar’s weakness?
Caesar’s physical weaknesses (deaf in one ear, seizures, and almost drowning) mirror the weakness of Rome. Cassius plans to write letters to Brutus posing as commoners, begging him to stop Caesar from being king.
What happens to Marullus and Flavius in Julius Caesar?
In Act 1, Scene ii, Casca tells Cassius and Brutus that the tribunes Marullus and Flavius, Caesar’s political enemies, have been caught disrobing the statues. They have been put to silence. Shakespeare does not explain the meaning of this phrase.
What was Julius Caesar’s nickname?
What was Julius Caesar’s first name?
Gaius Julius Caesar
What does Caesar mean in Greek?
Caesares; in Greek: Καῖσᾰρ Kaîsar) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about 68/69 AD, the so-called “Year of the Four Emperors”.
How did the Romans pronounce Caesar?
In English, Caesar is pronounced with a soft C, as many, if not all English dictionaries, such as Dictionary.com, put the pronunciation as [see-zer]. In Latin, Caesar is pronounced similar to the German word Kaiser, though in my experience with Latin, Caesar is pronounced as [kai-zar].
How did the Romans pronounce V?
The ancient Roman pronunciation is of course what we use when teaching or seriously speaking Latin. Its biggest peculiarities are that v is pronounced like English w, and ae like English ai in aisle. These two sounds were already changing at the end of the classical period.
Did Julius Caesar have blue eyes?
a caesiis oculis (“because of the blue eyes”): Caesar’s eyes were black, but since the despotic dictator Sulla had had blue eyes, this interpretation might have been created as part of the anti-Caesarian propaganda in order to present Caesar as a tyrant.