what is the mesopelagic zone?

what is the mesopelagic zone?

what is the mesopelagic zone?

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what is the mesopelagic zone?
what is the mesopelagic zone?

what is the mesopelagic zone?

Deep-Sea Ecology

Tracey T. Sutton, Rosanna J. Milligan, in Encyclopedia of Ecology (Second Edition), 2019

Bioluminescence—The Production and Use of Living Light

Bioluminescence is a defining feature of most animals living in the deep-pelagic realm, and even of many living near or on the seafloor.

Over 90% of the metazoan species in the mesopelagic zone are bioluminescent.

A lesser percentage of bathypelagic organisms are bioluminescent, though nearly all members of deep-sea anglerfishes (Suborder Ceratioidei; Fig. 3A–C).

the most speciose fish taxon below 1000 m, produce light, as do most gelatinous taxa (especially medusoid cnidarians) and a wide variety of pelagic shrimps.

Near the seafloor bioluminescence is greatly reduced among vertebrates and invertebrates alike.

Bioluminescence among metazoans is either accomplished using luminescent bacteria cultures bound inside specialized light organs.

or by intrinsic light production from photophores.

In one case (e.g., female linophrynid anglerfishes), both systems are used.

Intrinsic bioluminescence in the deep sea is produced from the same general chemical reactions as that of a firefly—a substrate (luciferin) is exposed to an enzyme (luciferase).

which produces an unstable molecule that releases light energy to reachieve stability.

bioluminescenc

As previously mentioned, bioluminescence can be used to aid in camouflage in the water column, and also as a ‘luring’ mechanism (e.g., chin barbel of dragonfishes; Fig. 2D, Fig. 4D).

but also has many other uses. Some animals (especially oplophorid shrimps and tubeshoulder fishes) presumably use bioluminescent displays to startle or distract predators, allowing for escape.

Certain lanternfishes and dragonfishes use enlarged photophores around the eyes to illuminate prey in the water column.

Bioluminescence can also be used to locate potential mates for spawning, as evidenced by the sex-specific photophore patterns of many meso- and bathypelagic fishes.

This form of sexual selection and reproductive isolation may be the driver behind the exceptional diversity of the specific taxa that utilize this form of communication, the lanternfishes and dragonfishes.

mesopelagic zone

A layer of the oceanic zone lying beneath the epipelagic zone and above the bathypelagic zone.
at depths generally between 200 and 1,000 m (656 and 3,280 ft).
The mesopelagic zone receives very little sunlight and is home to many bioluminescent organisms.
Because food is scarce in this region, most mesopelagic organisms migrate to the surface to feed at night or live off the falling detritus from the epipelagic ecosystem.
what is the mesopelagic zone?
what is the mesopelagic zone?

what is the definition for mesopelagic zone

Mesopelagic-zone meaning

mĕzə-pə-lăjĭk
A layer of the oceanic zone lying beneath the epipelagic zone and above the bathypelagic zone .
at depths generally between 200 and 1,000 m (656 and 3,280 ft).
The mesopelagic zone receives very little sunlight and is home to many bioluminescent organisms.
Because food is scarce in this region, most mesopelagic organisms migrate to the surface to feed at night or live off the falling detritus from the epipelagic ecosystem.

what is another name for the mesopelagic zone

middle pelagic
The mesopelagic zone (Greek μέσον, middle), also known as the middle pelagic or twilight zone, is the part of the pelagic zone that lies between the photic epipelagic and the aphotic bathypelagic zones.

what is the temperature in the mesopelagic zone

Temperature in the mesopelagic zone declines with depth from near-surface temperatures at the top of the zone to temperatures of 5°C, or about 40°F, at a depth of 3000 feet. This temperature is the same as that in your refrigerator at home.

what is the salinity of the mesopelagic zone

The temperature variations are large; from over 20 °C (68 °F) at the upper layers to around 4 °C (39 °F) at the boundary with the bathyal zone.
The variation in salinity is smaller, typically between 34.5 and 35 psu. The density ranges from 1023 to 1027 g/kg of seawater.

what is the pressure in the mesopelagic zon

Pressure increases by one atmosphere with every thirty feet of depth.
Pressure in the mesopelagic zone ranges from Page 5 about 300 pounds per square inch (psi) to 1500 psi.

what lives in the mesopelagic zone

Animals That Live in the Mesopelagic Zone

These animals include fish, shrimp, squid, snipe eels, jellyfish, and zooplankton.

Mesopelagic animals play an important role in the global carbon cycle and ocean’s food chain.

These organisms migrate in massive number to the oceans surface at dusk in search of food.

Seafloor Processes

Carbon Flux Attenuation Within the Water Column

Fig. 2 presents a conceptual cartoon of particle cycling within ocean depth zones and the attenuation of the organic carbon flux with depth.

The euphotic zone (< 100 m depth) is the shallow, sunlit surface zone where light is available for primary production, the underlying driver of the carbon cycle.

Primary production fuels the secondary production of bacterial and animal biomass and particle generation. Recycling of primary organic materials by the surface ecosystem is very efficient.

PEeff has a large influence on the nutritional quality of the organic carbon exported to the mesopelagic zone.

Marine Biogeochemistry

Michael P. Seki, Jeffrey J. Polovina, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition), 2019

The Intermediate Trophic Levels

The animals occupying the intermediate trophic levels that link the primary producers and consumers with the top of the food web include all of the zooplankton and micronekton (smaller organisms 10–100 cm in length) large enough to swim in inertial conditions.

Marine Biogeochemistry

Gabriel Reygondeau, Daniel Dunn, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition), 2019

Current Environmental Biogeography of the Pelagic Ocean

Vertical Division of the Pelagic Compartment

Historically, the pelagic part of the global ocean has been vertically divided into several zones: epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic (Pérès and Devèze, 1963). The epipelagic zone is usually distinguished from the mesopelagic at a depth of ~ 200 m, where models have shown that solar radiation is likely to be sufficiently low that photosynthesis effectively ceases (Sverdrup, 1953). ~ 1000 m. This choice mainly rests on observations of the vertical distribution of pelagic organisms (Pérès and Devèze, 1963).

what is the mesopelagic zone?
what is the mesopelagic zone?

Marine Life

Arved Staby, Anne G.V. Salvanes, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition), 2019

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