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Where is chlorophyll located in plants?
Chlorophyll is located within the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Chlorophyll is found in virtually all photosynthetic organisms, including green plants, cyanobacteria, and algae.
Chlorophyll is a pigment present in all green plants and a few other organisms. It is required for photosynthesis, which is the process by which light energy is converted into chemical energy.
Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. Light energy is converted into chemical energy.
Using the energy of light, carbohydrates such as sugars are synthesised from carbon dioxide and water. With photosynthesis, chlorophyll absorbs energy and then transforms water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydraes.
where is chlorophyll located in plants,
Green plants have the ability to make their own food. chlorophyll is the major pigment used by plants for capturing light energy. A chlorophyll molecule consists of a porphyrin head (four pyrrole rings containing nitrogen arranged in a ring around a magnesium ion) and a long hydrocarbon tail. The hydrocarbon tail is lipid-soluble. There are four types of chlorophyll: chlorophyll a, found in all higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria; chlorophyll b, found in higher plants and green algae; chlorophyll c, found in diatoms, dinoflagellates and brown algae; and chlorophyll d, found only in red algae.
The dye is extracted from natural sources (usually stinging nettle, spinach, alfalfa or corn) and used extensively in colouring inks, resins, soaps and waxes, edible fats, cosmetics, liniments, lotions, perfume, mouthwashes and leather. The dyestuff is known as C.I. Natural Green 3, C.I. Number 75810. It is very difficult to prepare pure chlorophyll chemically and the commercial product contains a mixture of chlorophylls a and b (in the ratio of 3:1) and several carotenoids.
Chlorophyll is located in a plant’s chloroplasts, which are tiny structures in a plant’s cells. This is where photosynthesis takes place. Phytoplankton, the microscopic floating plants that form the basis of the entire marine food web, contain chlorophyll, which is why high phytoplankton concentrations can make water look green.
Chlorophyll’s job in a plant is to absorb light—usually sunlight. The energy absorbed from light is transferred to two kinds of energy-storing molecules.
Through photosynthesis, the plant uses the stored energy to convert carbon dioxide (absorbed from the air) and water into glucose, a type of sugar. Plants use glucose together with nutrients taken from the soil to make new leaves and other plant parts. The process of photosynthesis produces oxygen, which is released by the plant into the air.
Plants that use photosynthesis to make their own food are called autotrophs. Animals that eat plants or other animals are called heterotrophs. Because food webs in every type of ecosystem, from terrestrial to marine, begin with photosynthesis, chlorophyll can be considered a foundation for all life on Earth.
forms of chlorophyll
Chlorophyll occurs in several distinct forms: chlorophylls a and b are the major types found in higher plants and green algae; chlorophylls c and d are found, often with a, in different algae; chlorophyll e is a rare type found in some golden algae; and bacterio-chlorophyll occurs in certain bacteria. In green plants chlorophyll occurs in membranous disklike units (thylakoids) in organelles called chloroplasts.
The chlorophyll molecule consists of a central magnesium atom surrounded by a nitrogen-containing structure called a porphyrin ring; attached to the ring is a long carbon–hydrogen side chain, known as a phytol chain. Variations are due to minor modifications of certain side groups. Chlorophyll is remarkably similar in structure to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment found in the red blood cells of mammals and other vertebrates.
Metabolism and Bioavailability
Little is known about the bioavailability and metabolism of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin. The lack of toxicity attributed to chlorophyllin led to the belief that it was poorly absorbed.
However, significant amounts of copper chlorin e4 were measured in the plasma of humans taking chlorophyllin tablets in a controlled clinical trial, indicating that it is absorbed. More research is needed to understand the bioavailability and metabolism of natural chlorophylls and chlorin compounds in synthetic chlorophyllin.
Chlorophyllin has shown possible effects to reduce inflammation and bacterial growth in skin wounds.
A 2008 review of wound care research involved several studies on ointments containing papain-urea-chlorophyllin.
While individual studies found this ointment to be more effective than other treatments, the reviewers note that larger, better controlled studies are required to confirm these findings.
Chlorophyllin may also be effective for other skin conditions, as evidenced by the results of two pilot studies. A pilot study is a small-scale preliminary study that’s performed prior to a larger study or trial.
A 2015 pilot studyTrusted Source of 10 people with acne and large pores saw skin improvement when topical chlorophyllin gel was used for 3 weeks.
Another 2015 pilot studyTrusted Source, also involving 10 people, found that using topical chlorophyllin over 8 weeks improved sun-damaged skin.
Studies in rodents show that chlorophyll can reduce the occurrence of cancerous tumors. It was found that chlorophyll can form close bonds to carcinogenic chemicals called aflatoxins. When they bind, the chlorophyll helps to block the absorption of the aflatoxins (cancer-causing agents) in the intestines. Additional studies in humans are needed to support these findings.
Chlorophyll also helps to prevent damage done to genes by harmful aflatoxins. Scientists are studying the effects of chlorophyll intake when it comes to liver, skin, stomach, and colon cancers. It’s important to note that this research is on chlorophyllin and not natural chlorophyll. This is so that the dosage can be monitored more accurately.
Research in early studies on humans shows that taking 100-milligram doses of chlorophyllin three times a day for four months decreased aflatoxin damage to DNA by up to 55%. Other studies show that there is a connection between eating vegetables and cancer protection. The higher your daily intake of green vegetables is, your body has a better effect of cancer prevention.
A 2004 pilot study suggested that wheatgrass, which contains about 70 percent chlorophyll, reduced the number of blood transfusions needed in people with thalassemia, a blood disorder.
However, it’s important to note that the study authors didn’t conclude that chlorophyll was the reason for the decreased need for transfusions.
Dr. Chris Reynolds, a clinical expert in wheatgrass, believes that the benefits likely come from wheatgrass itself rather than from the chlorophyll.
It’s unclear how wheatgrass affects red blood cells. But it’s believed that chlorophyll is destroyed during the production of wheatgrass extract.
Topical chlorophyll may work as an anti-aging remedy. A studyTrusted Source found that applying a gel containing chlorophyllin to the skin reduced signs of photoaging, which is aging that results from sun exposure. The study used skin samples from four healthy women and lasted for 12 days.
The results of the study showed that skin treated with chlorophyllin improved in a similar way to skin treated
with tretinoin, which is a prescription skin cream that has been proven to help with skin aging. The authors suggest that using a combination of chlorophyllin and tretinoin could be an effective treatment for reversing the signs of photoaged skin.
Topical chlorophyll may also have potential as an acne treatment.
One study found that a gel containing chlorophyllin helped reduce facial acne and large, visible pores. The 10 people who completed the study had mild to moderate acne and used the chlorophyllin gel for 3 weeks.
In another study, researchers compared using a combination of topical chlorophyll and phototherapy with phototherapy alone for the treatment of acne.
The people who received the combination had fewer acne lesions, less severe acne, and less oily skin than those who did not. However, the 24 participants were all of Asian descent and had darker skin types, so the results may not be relevant for everybody.
Natural chlorophylls are not known to be toxic, and no toxic effects have been attributed to chlorophyllin despite more than 50 years of clinical use in humans. When taken orally, chlorophyllin may cause green discoloration of urine or feces, or yellow or black discoloration of the tongue.
There have also been occasional reports of diarrhea related to oral chlorophyllin use. When applied topically to wounds, chlorophyllin has been reported to cause mild burning or itching in some cases. Oral chlorophyllin may result in false positive results on guaiac card tests for occult blood.