where was cubism founded?

where was cubism founded?

where was cubism founded?

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Cubism

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art

Cubism, highly influential visual arts style of the 20th century that was created principally by the artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914.

The Cubist style emphasized the flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane, rejecting the traditional techniques of perspective.

foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and refuting time-honoured theories that art should imitate nature.

Instead, they presented a new reality in paintings that depicted radically fragmented objects.

Louis Vauxcelles

Cubism derived its name from remarks that were made by the critic Louis Vauxcelles.

who derisively described Braque’s 1908 work Houses at L’Estaque as being composed of cubes.

In Braque’s painting, the volumes of the houses, the cylindrical forms of the trees.

and the tan-and-green colour scheme are reminiscent of Paul Cézanne’s landscapes.

which deeply inspired the Cubists in their first stage of development (until 1909).

It was, however, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, painted by Picasso in 1907.

that presaged the new style; in this work, the forms of five female nudes become fractured, angular shapes.

with the warm reddish-browns advancing and the cool blues receding.

Analytical Cubism

The movement’s development from 1910 to 1912 is often referred to as Analytical Cubism.

During this period, the work of Picasso and Braque became so similar that their paintings are almost indistinguishable.

Analytical Cubist paintings by both artists show the breaking down, or analysis, of form.

Picasso and Braque favoured right-angle and straight-line construction, though occasionally some areas of their paintings appear sculptural.

as in Picasso’s Girl with a Mandolin (1910).

They simplified their colour schemes to a nearly monochromatic scale .

(hues of tan, brown, gray, cream, green, or blue were preferred) in order not to distract the viewer from the artist’s primary interest.

—the structure of form itself.

The monochromatic colour scheme was suited to the presentation of complex, multiple views of the object.

transparent planes

which was reduced to overlapping opaque and transparent planes.

These planes appear to move beyond the surface of the canvas rather than to recede in depth.

Forms are generally compact and dense in the centre of an Analytical Cubist painting.

growing larger as they diffuse toward the edges of the canvas.

as in Picasso’s Portrait of Ambroise Vollard (1909–10).

In their work from this period, Picasso and Braque frequently combined representational motifs with letters;

their favourite motifs were musical instruments, bottles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, and the human face and figure.

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Synthetic Cubism

Interest in this subject matter continued after 1912.

during the phase generally identified as Synthetic Cubism.

Works of this phase emphasize the combination, or synthesis, of forms in the picture.

Colour assumes a strong role in these works;

shapes, while remaining fragmented and flat, are larger and more decorative.

and frequently foreign materials, such as newspapers or tobacco wrappers.

This technique, known as collage, further emphasizes the differences in texture and.

at the same time, poses the question of what is reality and what is illusion.

new visual language

Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris, Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes.

and Jean Metzinger. Though primarily associated with painting.

Cubism also exerted a profound influence on 20th-century sculpture and architecture.

The major Cubist sculptors were Alexander Archipenko.

Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz.

The adoption of the Cubist aesthetic by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier is reflected .

in the shapes of the houses he designed during the 1920s.

Aaron Douglas

American artist

Aaron Douglas, (born May 26, 1899, Topeka, Kansas, U.S.—died February 2, 1979, Nashville, Tennessee).

American painter and graphic artist who played a leading role in the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s.

After receiving a bachelor’s degree from the University of Nebraska in 1922.

Douglas returned briefly to his native Kansas to teach art.

By 1925 he had moved to New York City, where he joined a burgeoning arts scene in Harlem.

artist Winold Reiss

He studied with the German-born artist Winold Reiss and received several commissions for magazine illustrations.

His first major commission—to illustrate Alain Locke’s book The New Negro (1925).

—quickly prompted requests for graphics from other writers of the Harlem Renaissance, including Langston Hughes.

Charles S. Johnson, Countee Cullen, Wallace Thurman, and James Weldon Johnson.

Through this work he attracted the attention of Charlotte Mason, who sponsored him for a time.

CUBISM

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque first met in 1905, but it wasn’t until 1907 that Picasso showed Braque what is considered .

the first Cubist painting, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.

Breaking nearly every rule of traditional Western painting, the work was such a huge leap from his previous blue and pink periods.

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representational

which were far more representational and emotional.

Picasso worked with him privately on the implications of the piece, developing together the Cubist form.

Braque is the only artist to ever collaborate with Picasso, and over a period of two years.

they spent every evening together, with neither artist pronouncing a finished work until agreed on by the other.

OTHERS JOIN THE CUBIST MOVEMENT

Wider exposure brought others to the movement. Polish artist Louis Marcossis discovered Braque’s work in 1910.

Spanish artist Juan Gris remained on the fringes of the movement until 1911.

the object more essentia

He distinguished himself by refusing to make the abstraction of the object more essential.

than the object itself. Gris died in 1927, and Cubism represents a significant portion of his life’s work.

Marcel Duchamp

His famous 1912 painting, Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2).

reflects the influence but features a figure in motion. Typically in Cubist works, the viewer is more placed in motion.

since the perspective presented on canvas are multiple planes.

as if the artist is moving around the subject and capturing all views in one image.

THE SECOND ERA OF CUBISM

By 1912, Picasso and Braque had begun to incorporate words in the paintings.

which evolved into the collage elements that dominate the second era of Cubism, known as Synthetic Cubism.

Braque further experimented with collage, leading to his creation of the papier collé technique.

seen in 1912’s Fruit Dish and Glass, a concoction of wallpaper placed within the gouache.

Sculptors also explored Cubist forms. Russian artist Alexander Archipenko first publicly showed in 1910 alongside other Cubists.

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