which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

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Asian capital which was formerly called Edo

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which asian capital was formerly known as edo?
which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

Asian capital which was formerly called Edo

TOKYO

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A brief about Edo

Edo is the ancient name for Tokyo. During the reign of the Tokugawa Shoguns, Japan’s emperor reigned in secluded majesty at the imperial capital in Kyoto; however, the true center of power, government, the economy and social life was Edo, where the Shogun lived and ruled the country. For most people in Japan, Edo is more than just a historical city. It also has a symbolic image and meaning.

It represents nearly everything that they consider a part of their “traditional” culture. For the Japanese, Edo has a romantic image that one could compare to the Italian’s image of Renaissance Venice, the British image of Victorian London and the American image of the Wild West, all rolled into one. This website is designed to take you exploring in Edo. Hopefully it will offer not only some enjoyment, but also some insights into the source of “traditional Japan”. Although modern Tokyo may look very “Western” on the surface, in its heart the spirit of Edo still lives on!

Edo Period: Pre-conditions for Industrialization

From the late 12th century through the 17th century, Japan was ruled by samurais (military leaders) but politics remained unstable. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period).

Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attacks on Osaka Castle in 1615 where the rival Toyotomi family perished. Ieyasu established a new government in Edo and became the first shogun of the Edo Bakufu in 1603. Edo, a sleepy little town until then, was transformed into a huge political city by aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems. The Tokugawa family ruled the country in the next 264 years (15 shoguns in all). Ieyasu Tokugawa was deified and worshiped in Nikko Toshogu Shrine (even today).

which asian capital was formerly known as edo?
which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

We start the story of Japan’s economic development from the Edo period because pre-conditions for later industrialization and modernization were created internally during this period (moreover, quantitative data for earlier periods are very limited). The following are the pre-conditions that were generated:

(1) Political unity and stability
(2) Agricultural development in terms of both area and productivity
(3) Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets
(4) The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class
(5) The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc)
(6) Industrial promotion by central and local governments (sometimes successful but not always)
(7) High level of education

These are the features of the Edo period which are commonly cited by many researchers. The remainder of this lecture discusses them in detail. Note that some of these conditions are not achieved even today in some countries. In fact, developing countries that are equipped with all these conditions are relatively rare.

Here are some basic terminology for the Edo period:

 

Edo The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Incidentally, Tokyo means eastern capital (the western, or the traditional, capital is Kyoto).
Daimyo Regional samurai ruler. During the Edo period, it meant the head samurai of a local government (han).
Shogun Originally, the supreme commander of dispatched army. But it usually means the head of a central military government.
Bakufu Residence of a military ruler. Later it meant the central military government itself.
Han A local government (like province or prefecture) in the Edo period.

 

which asian capital was formerly known as edo?
which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

Features of the Bakufu-Han System

The basic characteristics of the Edo society and politics were as follows.

(1) It was a class society: The ruling class was samurai (military men who were permitted to carry a sword). Then farmers (ranked no.2), craftsmen (no.3), merchants (no.4). There was a big gap between the samurai class and other classes. Farmers were officially placed no.2 because they paid the rice tax, but they were not particularly respected. Below all of these classes, there were also outcasts (eta and hinin).(These four classes were called Shi-Nou-Kou-Shou (from top to bottom). Historically, Vietnam also had the distinction of Si-Nong-Cong-Thuong (Chinese characters are the same, only the pronunciation is different). It is clear that the idea originally came from China. In Vietnam, however, the top class “Si” meant scholars or literary bureaucrats, not fighting men. Moreover, it merely showed what types of people were important and respectable in society without political implication. The Edo government changed this idea into an ideology that legitimized a class society with samurais on top.)

(2) Politically, it was a centralized system. The Bakufu (central government) had absolute political power over the fate of hans (local governments) and could even remove or abolish them. It was a feudal society in the sense that the shogun gave daimyos the land to rule. In return, daimyos pledged loyalty to shogun. Any sign of disobedience was met with sternest punishment (often seppuku (ritual suicide) and/or the termination of the family).

(3) Economically, it was more decentralized. The Bakufu was not very capable of (or interested in) imposing consistent economic policies. Its policies were often unstable and short-sighted. Each han could decide its tax rates and other economic regulations, or encourage certain industries (so long as it was not explicitly prohibited by the Bakufu).

which asian capital was formerly known as edo?which asian capital was formerly known as edo?
which asian capital was formerly known as edo?

(4) The Bakufu imposed the following expenses on hans. (i) sankin kotai, bi-annual commuting between home and Edo (one year the daimyo must live in Edo, next year in his han, then Edo, then home, ad infinitum) — a large number of retainers also moved with him. This cost a large sum of money and usually constituted the largest part of han’s expenditure; (ii) public works ordered by the Bakufu, such as building castles, moats, roads, irrigation ponds and canals, waterworks, etc; (iii) other ad hoc and arbitrary taxes and charges.

Imposition of these financial expenses on hans had the effect of weakening the financial capability of hans so they were unable to build military forces to rebel against the Bakufu.

 

Asian Capital Once Called Edo Crossword Clue

The crossword clue Asian capital once called Edo with 5 letters was last seen on the January 01, 2009. We think the likely answer to this clue is TOKYO. Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. You can easily improve your search by specifying the number of letters in the answer.

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