Hello dear friends, solsarin in this article is talking about “which has more carbohydrates per kilo”.
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The eating regimen for someone with diabetes is a healthy way of eating from which the entire
family can benefit. This handbook will provide you with the basic survival skills to count
carbohydrates while eating a healthy diet.
Our bodies need a little bit of each of carbohydrates per kilo and nutrients. But, when someone has diabetes they
need to pay close attention to the amount of carbohydrate that they consume. Carbohydrate
is the nutrient that breaks down to sugar in our bodies as we digest it. Our bodies use
carbohydrate for energy.
In order to utilize energy of carbohydrates , however, insulin must be available to
carry sugar (glucose) into cells. Because people with diabetes have impaired insulin
production and/or utilization, sugar can build up in their blood, causing hyperglycemia, if they
take in too much carbohydrate per kilo at one time. This is why it is very important to count the grams
of carbohydrate in the foods that you eat.
It will allow you to control your diabetes better by
eating the correct amount of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin that your doctor
prescribes. Carbohydrates and insulin are a balancing act.
Is this food a carbohydrate, protein, or fat?
Now that you will be counting carbohydrates per kilo, you will need to determine if the food that you are
eating contains carbohydrates. If any food contains more than 5 grams of carbohydrate per
serving you will need to include it in your meal plan. Foods can be a combination of
“carbohydrate, protein, and/or fat”. You can use the food guide pyramid to help you determine
if a food is a carbohydrate, protein, or fat, or a combination.
Important Basics Food Charts –
Carbohydrates can be divided into three main groups:
Sugars and starches in food are sources of energy. Australians obtain 20 to 60 per cent of their total dietary energy from carbohydrate. Cellulose and some related substances are not used by our bodies as a significant source of energy. Nevertheless, these components are very important as, together with other indigestible substances, they constitute dietary fibre.
The main sugars in food are sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose and lactose. Sucrose is obtained from sugar cane and is usually called ‘sugar’. In addition, sucrose (as well as glucose and fructose) is found in fruit, fruit juices and honey. Besides providing energy, sugars also produce the sensation of sweetness. Each sugar contributes the same amount of energy (kilocalories) to our diet regardless of its sweetness. Different sugars are not equally sweet and the degree of sweetness of a food is often not a good indication of the amount of sugars present. For example, as shown in Figure 45, maltose is only half as sweet as sucrose.
FIGURE 45: SWEETNESS OF SUGARS RELATIVE TO SUCROSE
SUGAR RELATIVE SWEETNESS OTHER NAME Sucrose
Sugars are widely distributed in foods, particularly processed foods where their sweetness may sometimes be masked or hidden by other ingredients. Often the list of ingredients on the label will give an indication of the relative amount of sugar present. For a fuller discussion on sugars, see Sugars and Health.
The use of non-nutritive or artificial sweeteners can be used to make food and drink sweet without contributing significant amounts of energy. Although there is controversy about their safety, the most widely used artificial sweeteners are saccharin and cyclamate. The label of any food or drink containing these sweeteners must indicate that they are present. An artificial sweetener recently approved by some health authorities is aspartame. It has about the same energy value as sugar but because it is 180 times sweeter, very little needs to be used. The amount of aspartame providing sweetness equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar will only provide one-tenth of a kilocalorie.
Starch is the main form of carbohydrate in our food. It is present in a variety of cereals, vegetables and fruit, with major contributions from flour, potatoes and legumes (beans, peas). Starchy foods are usually cooked to improve digestibility and give a more desirable texture and flavour. During the ripening of fruit, starch is changed into sugars, which give sweetness to ripe fruits. In contrast to sugars, starch is often accompanied by significant amounts of other nutrients including dietary fibre. Starch has the same energy value as sugars. Health authorities are in agreement that we should increase our consumption of foods containing starch, such as wholegrain bread, cereals, fruits, vegetables and nuts.
There is no specific dietary requirement for carbohydrate because energy can also be derived from protein, fat and alcohol. However, a diet that does not contain carbohydrate can lead to muscle breakdown, ketosis and dehydration. This can be prevented by 50 to 100 grams of carbohydrate per day, but levels above this are desirable. Sources of complex carbohydrates, such as starch, are recommended as these often also provide necessary vitamins, elements (minerals) and dietary fibre.
How Much Do You Know
A calorie is the unit used to measure
the energy-producing value of food.
Technically, a calorie is defined as the
amount of heat necessary to raise the
temperature of one gram of water
one degree centigrade. There are four
major sources of energy in food: carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol.
When burned (metabolized), they
provide different amounts of energy:
Ca r b o h yd r a t e = 4 calories per gram
Protein = 4 calories per gram
Alcohol = 7 calories per gram
Fat = 9 calories per gram
The calorie content of food depends
on the amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol it contains. As
you can see, fat is the most concentrated source of energy and yields
more than twice as many calories per
unit weight as carbohydrate and protein. Keep this in mind when eating
foods rich in fat such as butter, whole
fat milk and cheese, red meat, nuts,
oils, mayonnaise, fried
foods, and many
How Many Calories
Do You Need?
Calories contained in food are transformed into different kinds of working energy by metabolic reactions in
the body: electrical for conduction of
nerve impulses, mechanical for muscle contraction and move m e n t ,
chemical for metabolic pro c e s s e s ,
and heat for maintenance of normal
body temperature. Thus, two factors
determine your calorie needs:
1) basal metabolic rate (BMR),
which is the energy needed to maintain your body’s basic physiological
functions at rest, and
2) level of physical activity. Your calorie needs per
day can be estimated based on your
healthy body weight (HBW) and
your activity level.
MAKING CALORIES COUNT
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. We get energy from the food we eat. More specifically, there are
four sources that provide energy: carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol. When burned (metabolized) in the
body, these substances supply different amounts of energy measured in calories.
Carbohydrate 4 calories per gram
Protein 4 calories per gram
Fat 9 calories per gram
Alcohol 7 calories per gram
Notice that fat is the most concentrated source of calories. Each gram of fat provides more than twice the number of calories as a gram of carbohydrate or protein. Nutrition information is often listed in grams, but you
can use the values listed above to estimate the calorie value of any food. Simply multiply the grams of each
source by the number of calories per gram. Then by adding these numbers together, you can determine the
total calories in an item. For example, the calorie content of a piece of apple pie is:
Grams/piece Calories/gram Calories % of Calories
Carbohydrate 45 4 180 58%
Protein 3 4 12 4%
Fat 13 9 117 38%
Alcohol 0 7 0 0
As you can see, this piece of pie contains 309 calories. But, the total number of calories provides only part of
a food item’s calorie profile. It is also important to examine the relative proportion of fat, carbohydrate, and
protein. For example, the piece of pie derives 58% of its calories from carbohydrate (the majority of these are
simple carbohydrates from sugar), 38% from fat, and 4% from protein. Besides being high in sugar, this piece
of pie also contains a large amount of fat. A diet high in fat is associated with health risks such as obesity, heart
disease, and some types of cancer.
S T U D E N T N U T R I T I O N A W A R E N E S S C A M P A I G N
To meet your body’s nutritional needs and decrease your chances of
d e veloping chronic disease, experts suggest that your total daily
calories be distributed as follow s :
How Many Calories Do I Need?
To maintain energy and a stable weight, the number of calories you eat must equal the
number of calories you expend. The number of calories you expend depends on your Ba s a l
Metabolic Rate (BMR) and your activity level. Your BMR is affected by multiple factors
such as: genetics, age, sex, and height (things you can’t change), and body composition and
activity level (things you can change).
There are many formulas to estimate your calorie needs. The formula below is based on the
healthy body weight (HBW) for your height. Individuals who are very athletic may have
higher healthy body weights and calorie needs due to their greater muscle mass.
Height HBW* BMR Light Moderate Heavy
Activity Activity Activity
5’0” 97-128 970-1280 1455-1920 1649-2176 1940-2560
5’2” 104-136 1040-1360 1560-2040 1768-2312 2080-2720
5’4” 110-145 1100-1450 1650-2175 1870-2465 2200-2900
5’6” 118-155 1180-1550 1770-2325 2006-2635 2360-3100
5’8” 125-164 1250-1640 1875-2460 2125-2788 2500-3280
5’10” 132-174 1320-1740 1980-2610 2244-2958 2640-3480
6’0” 140-184 1400-1840 2100-2760 2380-3128 2800-3680
6’2” 148-194 1480-1940 2220-2910 2516-3298 2960-3880
Which has more carbohydrates per kilo?
Sugar has the highest amount of carbohydrates in it compared to steak, celery and butter.
Reading Food Labels
eat the same amount of carbohydrate for each snack.
given the flexibility to eat what you want at snacks, as long as it fits into your carbohydrate
meal plan. Snacks can contain 15-30 grams of carbohydrate. Your dietitian will tell you how
much to have.
choose what to have or simply read the food label of the item that you want. Bedtime snacks
should contain both carbohydrate and protein.
Guidelines for Dining Out
When you eat out, somewhere other than home, it is still very important to follow your
carbohydrate meal plan. Here are a couple of tips to help you control your diabetes while
Wait until you arrive at the restaurant to give insulin, there may be unexpected delays. You
may need to change the time you take your insulin or have a small snack to prevent low
Plan ahead. Memorize your carbohydrate meal plan. Think about what it is that you might
Practice measuring out serving sizes. It is good to know what a serving size might look like
displayed on a plate.
Obtain a copy of the establishment’s nutritional analysis of foods. Most restaurants have
the nutrition information on their website.
Take charge and ask questions. Make sure you understand how foods are prepared
because some foods can contain hidden carbohydrates.