who invented the crossword puzzle?
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the inventor of crossword puzzle ?
Arthur Wynne (June 22, 1871 – January 14, 1945) was the British-born inventor of the modern crossword puzzle.
Arthur Wynne was born on June 22, 1871, in Liverpool, England, and lived on Edge Lane for a time. His father was the editor of the local newspaper, the Liverpool Mercury. He emigrated to the United States on June 6, 1891, at the age of 19, settling for a time in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
While in Pittsburgh, Wynne worked on the Pittsburgh Press newspaper and played the violin in the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. He later moved to New York City and worked on the New York World newspaper. He is best known for the invention of the crossword puzzle in 1913, when he was a resident of Cedar Grove, New Jersey.
Wynne created the page of puzzles for the “Fun” section of the Sunday edition of the New York World. For the December 21, 1913, edition, he introduced a puzzle with a diamond shape and a hollow center, with the letters F-U-N already being filled in. He called it a “Word-Cross Puzzle.”
Although Wynne’s invention was based on earlier puzzle forms, such as the word diamond, he introduced a number of innovations (e.g. the use of horizontal and vertical lines to create boxes for solvers to enter letters). He subsequently pioneered the use of black squares in a symmetrical arrangement to separate words in rows and columns. With the exception of the numbering scheme, the form of Wynne’s “Word-Cross” puzzles is that used for modern crosswords.
Arthur Wynne became a naturalized US citizen in the 1920s.He died in Clearwater, Florida, on January 14, 1945.
Word-cross or crossword?
A few weeks after the first “Word-Cross” appeared, the name of the puzzle was changed to “Cross-Word” as a result of a typesetting error. Wynne’s puzzles have been known as “crosswords” ever since.
The first crosswords appeared in England during the 19th century.
They were more of an elementary kind, apparently derived from the word square, a group of words arranged so the letters read alike vertically and horizontally, and printed in children‘s puzzle books and various periodicals.
How crossword inventor Arthur Wynne designed his first puzzle
Wynne recalled a puzzle from his childhood called “Magic Squares,” in which a given group of words had to be arranged so their letters would read the same way across and down. Wynne created a larger and more complex grid, and provided clues instead of giving the necessary words.
Today, of course, crossword puzzles are generally arranged into large squares.
Wynne’s puzzle, when it debuted, was an intricately-designed diamond, hollowed out at the core. (In fact, the shape wasn’t the only thing that changed. Originally, Wynne called his creation a “Word-Cross,” after its bisecting lines. Only later was the term “Cross-word” introduced, possibly because of an error on the part of a type-setter.)
The benefits of crossword puzzles!
Crossword puzzles are an extremely popular pastime.
In addition, they sharpen the brain and increase vocabulary. Graded from “easy” to “difficult”, some seem almost impossible to complete.
It is recommended that novices start with the “easy” ones and progress, up the ladder, step by step.
What is the origin of crossword puzzles?
The first appearance of a crossword in a British publication was in Pearson’s Magazine in February 1922, and the first Times crossword appeared on February 1 1930.
British puzzles quickly developed their own style, being considerably more difficult than the American variety.
In particular the cryptic crossword became established and rapidly gained popularity.
The generally considered governing rules for cryptic puzzles were laid down by A. F. Ritchie and D. S. Macnut
The rules for American crosswords are as follows:
The pattern of black-and-white squares must be symmetrical. Generally this rule means that if you turn the grid upside-down, the pattern will look the same as it does right-side-up.
Do not use too many black squares.
In the old days of puzzles, black squares were not allowed to occupy more than 16% of a grid. Nowadays there is no strict limit, in order to allow maximum flexibility for the placement of theme entries.
Still, “cheater” black squares (ones that do not affect the number of words in the puzzle, but are added to make constructing easier) should be kept to a minimum, and large clumps of black squares anywhere in a grid are strongly discouraged.
Do not use unkeyed letters (letters that appear in only one word across or down).
In fairness to solvers, every letter has to be appear in both an Across and a Down word.
Do not use two-letter words. The minimum word length is three letters.
The grid must have all-over interlock.
In other words, the black squares may not cut the grid up into separate pieces.
A solver, theoretically, should be able to able to proceed from any section of the grid to any other without having to stop and start over.
Long theme entries must be symmetrically placed.
If there is a major theme entry three rows down from the top of the grid, for instance, then there must be another theme entry in the same position three rows up from the bottom.
Also, as a general rule, no nontheme entry should be longer than any theme entry.
Do not repeat words in the grid.
Do not make up words and phrases.
Every answer must have a reference or else be in common use in everyday speech or writing.
(Modern rule) The vocabulary in a crossword must be lively and have very little obscurity.
How to finish a crossword puzzle ?
Solve the fill-in-the-blank clues first, as they’re usually easier than the others. Then, you’ll have a network of answers from which to work. Solve as many of the squares as you can from the network, and then start at the #1 box, across, then down.
Fill in the word if it fits both directions. Then do the same with the next box until you fill in the words you are sure of. If unsure, write your potential letters very lightly inside the boxes.
Continue like this, filling in words you are unsure of, but fit into the down and across boxes.
Return to the start, making a second pass through the clues. Now that you have a few letters pencilled in, a correct answer might just pop up in your memory. Ensure that the letters fit into the other numbered boxes as well. It is not a correct word, remember, unless it fits perfectly with every box number it touches.
Repeat these steps until the puzzle is solved or until completely stumped. Now the fun begins as you start to find the letters for each remaining word.
Spend a long time thinking about the “theme” clues. Often, this is key to puzzle solving. For example, if the theme clues are based on famous crossword puzzlers and you do not know much about it
Study the missing letters. There are only just so many syllables in the English language and only a few letters will work with both of the words that cross. Take guesses and see if they fit.
Review the puzzle and the clues you missed or clues you derived without any knowledge of the subject. Put these to memory.
Crossword Puzzles Were Invented in Troubled Times
n stressful times, solving a crossword is not just a diversion but a necessary solace. In fact, the crossword puzzle was born in December 1913, on the eve of World War I.
Arthur Wynne, an editor at the New York World, needed a new game for that paper’s FUN section.
So he printed a blank word-search grid, devised clues so readers could figure out the letters, and called it “FUN’s Word-Cross Puzzle.” A typographical error a few weeks later transposed the puzzle’s title to “Cross-Word,” and the puzzle was permanently re-christened.
New solvers became rabid cruciverbalists—that is, crossword fans––practically overnight, latching onto the grid as a refuge from chaos.
As the war progressed and headlines in the World became increasingly bleak, the paper’s advertising efforts to point solvers to the puzzle also dialed up, with banners on the front pages directing readers straight past the dire news and to the crossword for an anchor in increasingly uncertain times.
And as World War I ramped up, so did cruciverbal production, and the activity’s popularity only grew after the Armistice.
During the 1920s, the crossword boomed: from crossword-patterned stockings to crossword-themed musicals to comic strips like “Cross Word Cal,” the puzzle was everywhere.
However, crosswords themselves were all over the map in terms of their form and content.
Though some puzzles were carefully edited and regulated, others were much more freewheeling, all shapes and sizes and riddled with errors.
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