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Scientists compared genetic material from two strands of hair found in Calendarium Romanum Magnum, a book by Johannes Stoeffler published in 1518 and owned by Copernicus for many years, to a tooth from the skull found in Frombork.
Copernicus was born in Torun, northern Poland, in 1473.
His final resting place has until now remained a mystery.
Polish, French and German researchers have tried for two centuries to find his tomb, says Gassowski.
“When the bishop of Frombork asked me to begin a search, I was sceptical. It seemed an impossible task. There are hundreds of remains buried in the cathedral,” he says.
In 2005 archaeologists found the remains of a 70-year-old man in the main Holy Cross altar.
Coperincus shocked his contemporaries by asserting that the earth rotated on its axis once a day and travelled around the sun once a year in his pioneering work De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres), published shortly before his death in 1543.
who is the father of modern indian astronomy
- Vainu Bappu was born in Chennai on August 10, 1927 as the only child of Manali Kukuzhi and Sunanna Bappu.
- Vainu Bappu not only excelled in studies but took active part in debates, sports and other extracurricular activities.
- However, his father exposed him to astronomy from early age so astronomy became his passion.
- During his college years, he had published papers on variable star observations.
Vainu Bappu Scientific Research
- He completed his Ph.D. in 1952 and joined the Palomar observatory on the prestigious Carnegie Fellowship.
- Later he returned to India in 1953 and he set up the Uttar Pradesh State Observatory in Nainital.
- In 1960 he left Nainital to take over as the Director of the Kodaikanal Observatory. He modernised the facilities there and it is today an active centre of astronomical research.
- He designed, fabricated and installed a totally indigenous 2.3 meter telescope in Kavalur, Tamil Nadu.
- Astronomical Society of the Pacific awarded him the Donhoe Comet-Medal in 1949.
- Belgium Academy of Sciences elected Vainu Bappu as Honorary Foreign Fellow.
- He was an Honorary Member of the American Astronomical Society.
- Vainu Bappu was elected President of the International Astronomical Union in 1979.
- He died on August 19, 1982 in Munich, Germany.
- The Vainu Bappu Observatory is one of the main observatories of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics
- Modern Astronomers regarded him as the father of modern Indian astronomy.
Galileo, in full Galileo Galilei, (born February 15, 1564, Pisa [Italy]—died January 8, 1642, Arcetri, near Florence), Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion, astronomy, and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method.
His formulation of (circular) inertia, the law of falling bodies, and parabolic trajectories marked the beginning of a fundamental change in the study of motion. His insistence that the book of nature was written in the language of mathematics changed natural philosophy from a verbal, qualitative account to a mathematical one in which experimentation became a recognized method for discovering the facts of nature. Finally, his discoveries with the telescope revolutionized astronomy and paved the way for the acceptance of the Copernican heliocentric system, but his advocacy of that system eventually resulted in an Inquisition process against him.
Early life and career
The family moved to Florence in the early 1570s, where the Galilei family had lived for generations. In his middle teens Galileo attended the monastery school at Vallombrosa, near Florence, and then in 1581 matriculated at the University of Pisa, where he was to study medicine. However, he became enamoured with mathematics and decided to make the mathematical subjects and philosophy his profession, against the protests of his father. Galileo then began to prepare himself to teach Aristotelian philosophy and mathematics, and several of his lectures have survived.
In 1585 Galileo left the university without having obtained a degree, and for several years he gave private lessons in the mathematical subjects in Florence and Siena. During this period he designed a new form of hydrostatic balance for weighing small quantities and wrote a short treatise, La bilancetta (“The Little Balance”), that circulated in manuscript form. He also began his studies on motion, which he pursued steadily for the next two decades.
In 1588 Galileo applied for the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna but was unsuccessful. His reputation was, however, increasing, and later that year he was asked to deliver two lectures to the Florentine Academy, a prestigious literary group, on the arrangement of the world in Dante’s Inferno. As a result, he obtained the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in 1589.
There, according to his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani (1622–1703), Galileo demonstrated, by dropping bodies of different weights from the top of the famous Leaning Tower, that the speed of fall of a heavy object is not proportional to its weight, as Aristotle had claimed. The manuscript tract De motu (On Motion), finished during this period, shows that Galileo was abandoning Aristotelian notions about motion and was instead taking an Archimedean approach to the problem. But his attacks on Aristotle made him unpopular with his colleagues, and in 1592 his contract was not renewed. His patrons, however, secured him the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he taught from 1592 until 1610.
Galileo’s salary at university
His university salary could not cover all his expenses, and he therefore took in well-to-do boarding students whom he tutored privately in such subjects as fortification. In the midst of his busy life he continued his research on motion, and by 1609 he had determined that the distance fallen by a body is proportional to the square of the elapsed time (the law of falling bodies) and that the trajectory of a projectile isa parabola, both conclusions that contradicted Aristotelian physics.
Telescopic discoveries of Galileo
At this point, however, Galileo’s career took a dramatic turn. By trial and error, he quickly figured out the secret of the invention and made his own three-powered spyglass from lenses for sale in spectacle makers’ shops. Others had done the same;In August of that year he presented an eight-powered instrument to the Venetian Senate (Padua was in the Venetian Republic).
He was rewarded with life tenure and a doubling of his salary. Galileo was now one of the highest-paid professors at the university. In December he drew the Moon’s phases as seen through the telescope, showing that the Moon’s surface is not smooth, as had been thought, but is rough and uneven. In January 1610 he discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter.
galileo galilei inventions
He also found that the telescope showed many more stars than are visible with the naked eye. These discoveries were earthshaking, and Galileo quickly produced a little book, Sidereus Nuncius (The Sidereal Messenger), in which he described them. He dedicated the book to Cosimo II de Medici (1590–1621), the grand duke of his native Tuscany, whom he had tutored in mathematics for several summers, and he named the moons of Jupiter after the Medici family: the Sidera Medicea, or “Medicean Stars.” Galileo was rewarded with an appointment as mathematician and philosopher of the grand duke of Tuscany, and in the fall of 1610 he returned in triumph to his native land.
Galileo was now a courtier and lived the life of a gentleman. Before he left Padua he had discovered the puzzling appearance of Saturn, later to be shown as caused by a ring surrounding it, and in Florence he discovered that Venus goes through phases just as the Moon does. Although these discoveries did not prove that Earth is a planet orbiting the Sun, they undermined Aristotelian cosmology, the moons of Jupiter showed that there had to be more than one centre of motion in the universe, and the phases of Venus showed that it (and, by implication, Mercury) revolves around the Sun.
As a result, Galileo was confirmed in his belief, which he had probably held for decades but which had not been central to his studies, that the Sun is the centre of the universe and that Earth is a planet, as Copernicus had argued. Galileo’s conversion to Copernicanism would be a key turning point in the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo’s increasingly overt Copernicanism began to cause trouble for him. In 1613 he wrote a letter to his student Benedetto Castelli (1577–1644) in Pisa about the problem of squaring the Copernican theory with certain biblical passages. Inaccurate copies of this letter were sent by Galileo’s enemies to the Inquisition in Rome, and he had to retrieve the letter and send an accurate copy. Several Dominican fathers in Florence lodged complaints against Galileo in Rome, and Galileo went to Rome to defend the Copernican cause and his good name.
In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo discussed the problem of interpreting biblical passages withregard to scientific discoveries but, except for one example, did not actually interpret the Bible.He also drew a distinction between the properties of external objects and the sensations they cause in us—i.e., the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Publication of Il saggiatore came at an auspicious moment, for Maffeo Cardinal Barberini (1568–1644), a friend, admirer, and patron of Galileo for a decade, was named Pope Urban VIII as the book was going to press.
Galileo new book
Galileo was then 70 years old. Yet he kept working. In Siena he had begun a new book on the sciences of motion and strength of materials. The book was spirited out of Italy and published in Leiden, the Netherlands, in 1638 under the title Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla meccanica (Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences). Galileo here treated for the first time the bending and breaking of beams and summarized his mathematical and experimental investigations of motion, including the law of falling bodies and the parabolic path of projectiles as a result of the mixing of two motions, constant speed and uniform acceleration.