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Mount Everest, Sanskrit and Nepali Sagarmatha, Tibetan Chomolungma, Chinese (Pinyin) Zhumulangma Feng , mountain on the crest of the Great Himalayas of southern Asia that lies on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, at 27°59′ N 86°56′ E. Reaching an elevation of 29,032 feet (8,849 metres), Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
Like other high peaks in the region, Mount Everest has long been revered by local peoples. Its most common Tibetan name, Chomolungma, means “Goddess Mother of the World” or “Goddess of the Valley.”
In 1865 the mountain—previously referred to as Peak XV—was renamed for Sir George Everest, British surveyor general of India from 1830 to 1843.
Geology and relief
The Himalayan ranges were thrust upward by tectonic action as the Indian-Australian Plate moved northward from the south and was subducted (forced downward) under the Eurasian Plate following the collision of the two plates between about 40 and 50 million years ago.
The Himalayas themselves started rising about 25 to 30 million years ago, and the Great Himalayas began to take their present form during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago).
Everest and its surrounding peaks are part of a large mountain massif that forms a focal point, or knot, of this tectonic action in the Great Himalayas.
Drainage and climate
Glaciers cover the slopes of Everest to its base.
Individual glaciers flanking the mountain are the Kangshung Glacier to the east; the East, Central, and West Rongbuk (Rongpu) glaciers to the north and northwest; the Pumori Glacier to the northwest; and the Khumbu Glacier to the west and south, which is fed by the glacier bed of the Western Cwm, an enclosed valley of ice between Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse Ridge to the south.
Glacial action has been the primary force behind the heavy and continuous erosion of Everest and the other high Himalayan peaks.
Everest is so tall and its climate so severe that it is incapable of supporting sustained human occupation, but the valleys below the mountain are inhabited by Tibetan-speaking peoples.
Traditionally an agricultural people with little cultivable land at their disposal, the Sherpas for years were traders and led a seminomadic lifestyle in their search for pastureland.
In summer, livestock was grazed as high as 16,000 feet (4,880 metres), while winter refuge was taken at lowerelevations on sheltered ledges and along riverbanks.
Living in close proximity to the world’s highest mountains, the Sherpas traditionally treated the Himalayas as sacred—building Buddhist monasteries at their base, placing prayer flags on the slopes, and establishing sanctuaries for the wildlife of the valleys that included musk deer, monal pheasant, and Himalayan partridge.
Gods and demons were believed to live in the high peaks, and the Yeti (the so-called Abominable Snowman) was said to roam the lower slopes. For these reasons, the Sherpas traditionally did not climb the mountains.
On the Nepalese side of the international boundary, the mountain and its surrounding valleys lie within Sagarmatha National Park, a 480-square-mile (1,243-square-km) zone established in 1976. In 1979 the park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The valleys contain stands of rhododendron and forests of birch and pine, while above the tree line alpine vegetation extends to the feet of the glaciers.
Over the years, carelessness and excessive consumption of resources by mountaineers, as well as overgrazing by livestock, have damaged the habitats of snow leopards, lesser pandas, Tibetan bears, and scores of bird species.
To counteract past abuses, various reforestation programs have been carried out by local communities and the Nepalese government.
How Tall Is Mount Everest?
Today, Everest’s height is 29,029 feet.
Italy, in 1992, lopped seven feet off the standard height, measuring it at 29,022 feet. In 1999, a measurement by American scientists pushed the peak a little higher, saying the mountain reached 29,035 feet.
These measurement expeditions have typically excluded experts from Nepal, which shares the mountain with China and is one of the poorest countries in Asia.
Now, for the first time, Nepali surveyors are limiting intervention from foreign powers and sending a team to the summit to settle the height question for themselves. In addition to the science, a bit of national pride is at stake.
“What will happen if foreign experts continue to reduce the height of our mountain without us participating?”
What is the tallest mountain in the world
Mount Everest: Highest Altitude
If you ask almost anyone to name the highest mountain in the world, their answer will probably be “Mount Everest.”
Mount Everest, located on the border between China and Nepal, has an altitude of 8,848.86 meters (29,031.69 feet) – making it the highest mountain in the world.
The altitude is of 8,848.86 meters l. Both countries agreed to use the elevation of the mountain’s snow cap, rather than a bedrock elevation of 8,844 meters.
What does “world’s highest” really mean?
Mount Everest is called the world’s highest mountain because it has the “highest elevation above sea level.” We could also say that it has the “highest altitude.”
The peak of Mount Everest is 8,848.86 meters (29,031.69 feet) above sea level. No other mountain on Earth has a higher altitude. However, some mountains might be considered “taller” (with taller being “the total vertical distance between their base and their summit”).
Mauna Kea, a volcanic mountain on the island of Hawaii, has an altitude of 4,207 meters (13,803 feet) – much lower than Mount Everest.
Chimborazo: Farthest from the Center of the Earth
Chimborazo, a volcano in Ecuador, has an altitude of 6,263 meters (20,549 feet). Mount Everest has a higher altitude, and Mauna Kea is “taller.” However, the top of Chimborazo is farther from the center of the Earth than the top of Mount Everest and the top of Mauna Kea.
Farther from the center of the Earth?
Earth’s shape is not a perfect sphere. Instead, it is an oblate spheroid – meaning that it is a few miles wider at its equator than locations north and south of the equator.
Mount Everest deaths
KATHMANDU, Nepal — An American and a Swiss climber have died on Mount Everest in the season’s first casualties on the world’s highest mountain,
at nearly 30,000 feet at its peak,
expedition organizers said Thursday.
U.S. national Puwei Liu, 55, died at the highest camp on the mountain at South Col.
He had reached the climbing feature named the Hillary Step,
located between South Col and the summit,
but had to return because of snow blindness and exhaustion,
expedition organizer Seven Summit Treks said.
“Abdul successfully reached the summit but began experiencing issues during his descent,” he said. “We sent two additional Sherpas with oxygen and food. Unfortunately, the Sherpas couldn’t save him.”
Bad weather conditions have forced climbers to descend to lower altitudes for now.
History of exploration
The human challenge
Mount Everest is difficult to get to and more difficult to climb, even with the great advances made in equipment, transportation, communications, and weather forecasting since the first major expeditions in the 1920s.
The mountain itself lies in a highly isolated location.
There are no roads in the region on the Nepalese side,
and before the 1960s all goods and supplies had to be carried long distances by humans and pack animals.
In Tibet there is now a road to the north-side Base Camp.