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when is the glottic opening the largest

when is the glottic opening the largest

when is the glottic opening the largest

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when is the glottic opening the largest
when is the glottic opening the largest

Opening Round

David M. Yousem MD, MBA, in Head and Neck Imaging (Fourth Edition), 2015

Tumor Staging of Glottis Cancer

Glottis cancer is staged as follows:

T1: Tumor is limited to one or both vocal cords (may involve anterior or posterior commissure) with normal mobility.

T1a: Tumor is limited to one vocal cord.

T1b: Tumor involves both vocal cords.

T2: Tumor extends to supraglottis and/or subglottis, with or without impaired vocal cord mobility

T3: Tumor is limited to the larynx with vocal cord fixation and/or invades paraglottic space, with or without minor erosion of the thyroid cartilage (e.g., inner cortex).

T4a: Tumor invades through the thyroid cartilage and/or invades tissue beyond the larynx (e.g., trachea; soft tissues of the neck, including the deep extrinsic muscle of the tongue, strap muscles, thyroid, or esophagus).

T4b: Tumor invades prevertebral space, encases carotid artery, or invades mediastinal structures.

Total Laryngectomy

David E. Eibling, in Operative Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery (Second Edition), 2008

Neck Dissection

The glottis, in direct contradistinction to the supraglottis, is relatively devoid of lymphatics.

Cervical metastases are rare if the cancer is confined to the true vocal cord.

As a result, routine elective neck dissection is not required for T1 or T2 glottic cancer. However, all supraglottic cancers, hypopharyngeal cancers,

and T3 or T4 glottic cancers are more likely to have clinically apparent or occult regional metastatic disease.

and cancer of the anterior commissure with cartilage invasion.

Cancer that originates in the subglottis or is glottic with extension more than 2 cm subglottically has a high propensity to involve the paratracheal nodes.



Glottis, either the space between the vocal fold and arytenoid cartilage of one side of the larynx and those of the other side, or the structures that surround that space. See larynx.

Respiratory Tract

Donald E. Gardner, Daniel T. Kirkpatrick, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), 2005

Nasopharyngeal Region

The nasopharyngeal (NP) region is the most proximal region of the respiratory system and is the first potential target for airborne substances. The specific structures making up this region include the anterior nares, the turbinates, the epiglottis, the glottis, the pharynx, and the larynx. The nose is the normal portal of entry for all inhaled material.

Gastrointestinal Toxicology

J.-M. Sauer, in Comprehensive Toxicology, 2010 Oropharyngeal phase of swallowing

The tongue pushes chewed food and liquid backward and upward (Figure 6).

This movement causes the soft palate to move toward the upper constrictor muscles of the posterior pharyngeal wall.

thereby narrowing the entry way for food into the nasopharynx.

The backward movement of the tongue also pushes the epiglottis down toward the glottis again restricting the entry way for food into the trachea (Johnson 1997).

Industrial and Occupational Toxicants

Rosalind Dalefield BVSc PhD DABVT DABT, in Veterinary Toxicology for Australia and New Zealand, 2017

Mode(s) of Action

Pneumonia is the most common manifestation of petroleum hydrocarbon toxicosis in domestic animals.

Petroleum hydrocarbons are irritant to the surfaces of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.

They cause pulmonary pathology in their own right, damaging the lipid membranes of pneumocytes and altering surfactant.

Viscous petroleum hydrocarbons can form a film over the larynx, facilitating the transfer of pathogens into the lower respiratory tract.

Cardiovascular Toxicology

L. Afonso, … A. Badheka, in Comprehensive Toxicology, 2010 Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

Reports incriminating opioids with pulmonary edema date back to approximately half a century.

Although these agents are often used to treat pulmonary edema for their vasodilatory effects, virtually any opioid can cause pulmonary edema .

(Helpern and Rho 1966; Hine et al. 1982).

Diverse theories have been proposed to explain the genesis of opioid-induced pulmonary edema;

Water Balance and Gas Exchange

Laurie J. Vitt, Janalee P. Caldwell, in Herpetology (Third Edition), 2009


Lungs are the principal respiratory surface in many terrestrial amphibians and all reptiles.

All extant amphibians with lungs utilize a positive-pressure buccal pump mechanism (Fig. 6.23); in contrast, reptiles (and mammals).

use thoracic aspiration. In amphibians, the floor of the mouth is alternately raised and depressed.

Tetrapod Relationships and Evolutionary Systematics

Laurie J. Vitt, Janalee P. Caldwell, in Herpetology (Third Edition), 2009

Major Features of Early Tetrapod Evolution

The radiation of elpistostegalian fish (Panderichthys, Elpistostege, and Tiktaalik) indicates that the tetrapod origin was within the Euramerican landmass.

Panderichthys and Elpistostege are found in deltaic and estuarine settings, but Tiktaalik is found in nonmarine sediment,

indicating that the elpistostegalian fishes were exploiting new habitats.

Although changes occurred in nearly all systems during the transition from water to land,

it remains difficult to determine which changes preadapted tetrapod ancestors to move to land (exaptation) and which represent true responses (adaptations) to the transition.

Linguistics From an Evolutionary Point of View

James R. Hurford, in Philosophy of Linguistics, 2012

5 Phonology From an Evolutionary Point of View

Phonology is defined as the patterns of speech in languages.

Languages organize their sound patterns within the possibilities afforded by the auditory and vocal apparatus.

The physical apparatus is pretty much universal.

give or take some individual variation not reflected in the organization of particular languages.

The raw material of phonological organization is given by the mobility of the jaws and velum.

the great flexibility of the lips and tongue and the several possible states of the glottis while air passes through it.

when is the glottic opening the largest
when is the glottic opening the largest


The presence of a functional neck in Tiktaalik provides some insight into the early evolution of inertial feeding.

in which the mouth-head of the tetrapod must move forward over the food.


The skin of larval amphibians and fish is similar.

The epidermis is two to three layers thick and protected by a mucous coat secreted by numerous unicellular mucous cells (Chapter 2).

The skin of adult amphibians differs from that of fish ancestors.

Sense Organs

As tetrapods became more terrestrial, sense organs shifted from aquatic to aerial perception.

Lateral line and electric organs function only in water and occur only in the aquatic phase of the life cycle or in aquatic species.

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