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country once known as new holland crossword
For many centuries Europeans believed there must be a vast land in the southern hemisphere, variously called ‘Terra Australis Incognita’ or ‘Unknown South Land’.
After Dutch navigators charted the northern, western.
and southern coasts of Australia during the 17th Century this newly found continent became known as ‘New Holland’.
It was the English explorer Matthew Flinders
who made the suggestion of the name we use today. He was the first to circumnavigate the continent in 1803.
and used the name ‘Australia’ to describe the continent on a hand drawn map in 1804.
The National Library holds a reproduction.
When the map and book describing his journey was finally published in 1814 the name ‘Terra Australis’ was used instead.
although Flinders stated that his preference was still ‘Australia’. You can view his General chart of Terra Australis or Australia map online.
The name Australia had appeared in print before, but only broadly applied to the legendary southern land mass
. The earliest printing of this name is in an astronomical treatise published in 1545.
With south at the top of the map a small wind head map names the imagined southern land mass ‘Australia’.
The State Library of South Australia has an excellent overview of Flinders’ naming of Australia on their website Encounter 1802-2002.
Name of Australia Why is Australia Named Australia?
The name Australia comes from the Latin word Australis which means southern.
It was first used by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós to describe an island in Vanuatu.
In 1803, Matthew Flinders, a British explorer, suggested the name “Australia” for the vast southern continent he had just circumnavigated and mapped.
In 1901 the six colonies of the continent of Australia agreed to unite and form a nation with a shared loyalty. This newly formed country was to be officially named.
Origin of the Word ‘Australia’ It Started Thousands of Years Ago
The ancient Greeks, as early as 500BC, argued that that the world was a sphere;
round like a tennis ball and that a great landmass must exist on the bottom of the earth in the south to counterbalance the “known world” on the top, in the north. (See map).
In about 200AD, Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek mapmaker drew in an fictional land on the bottom of his maps of the world.
This imaginary land in the south was referred to as Terra Australis which means the Southern Land in Latin (terra=land + australis=southern).
During the European Age of Discovery, many explorers set out from Europe to find this mythical southern land.
First Use of the Word “Australia” The Spanish Thought They Found It
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese navigator in the service of the Spanish, was commissioned by King Philip III to find Terra Australis.
In 1606 his expedition reached a large island. Queirós believed he had found the southern continent, and named it Australia del Espiritu Santo.
In fact, he was nearly 2,000 kilometres off target, on an island that is now part of the nation of Vanuatu.
This is the first usage of the word “Australia“.
In his printed memoirs this name was altered to Austrialia del Espíritu Santo .
(Southern-Austrian Land of the Holy Spirit) being a concatenation of Austria and Australis in order to flatter Phillip III who was of the royal House of Austria.
First English Usage of the Word But they called it Austrialia
The first-ever recorded reference in the English language was in 1625 by Sir Richard Hakluyt in his reference “A note of Austrialia del Espíritu Santo” of the publication Hakluytus Posthumus.
which referred to Queirós’s memoirs. He followed Queirós’s published spelling for the word, with the additional letter “i”. (Austrialia).
Where Is “Old Zealand”?
The map is littered with place names that are derived from older place names.
The act of taking a location from an explorer’s country of origin, prefixing it with “New,”
and assigning it to a place that scarcely resembles its namesake (”Old” Jersey is a sparsely populated Channel Island known primarily for its dairy cattle).
is practically its own chapter in the how-to guide to Western colonialism. Thanks to the globe-spanning commercial reach of the Dutch East India Company.
place names that have their origins in the Netherlands pop up with surprising regularity.
Dutch explorers and colonial officials were responsible for New Netherland.
(now New York), New Amsterdam (now New York City), and New Haarlem (now just Harlem).
The British would ensure that those names would be chiefly remembered in song, if at all (”Even old New York was once New Amsterdam…”),
and although they replaced the Dutch-named New Holland with Australia, New Zealand retained its Dutch origins.
In December 1642 Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman
was the first European to sight New Zealand’s South Island, and Dutch cartographers named the territory after the Dutch maritime province of Zeeland.
Located just northwest of the Belgian city of Antwerp, Zeeland is more than 11,000 miles (17,700 km) from New Zealand.
To provide some perspective on that figure, the maximum distance between any two points on Earth is about 12,450 miles .
(20,000 km), so New Zealand is practically as far as you can be from Zeeland without leaving Earth. The Dutch East India Company certainly got around.