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what nationality was jean-jacques rousseau
(born June 28, 1712, Geneva, Switzerland—died July 2, 1778, Ermenonville, France), Swiss-born philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation.
Rousseau was the least academic of modern philosophers and in many ways was the most influential. His thought marked the end of the European Enlightenment (the “Age of Reason”).
He propelled political and ethical thinking into new channels.
His reforms revolutionized taste, first in music, then in the other arts;
Swiss-born French philosopher
Jean-Jacques Rousseau remains an important figure in the history of philosophy, both because of his contributions to political philosophy .
and moral psychology and because of his influence on later thinkers.
Rousseau’s own view of philosophy and philosophers was firmly negative, seeing philosophers as the post-hoc rationalizers of self-interest,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born in the independent Calvinist city-state of Geneva in 1712, the son of Isaac Rousseau,
a watchmaker, and Suzanne Bernard. Rousseau’s mother died nine days after his birth.
with the consequence that Rousseau was raised and educated by his father until the age of ten.
Isaac Rousseau was one of the small minority of Geneva’s residents who enjoyed the rank of citizen of Geneva, a status which Jean-Jacques was to inherit.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, known as one of the most influential thinkers during the 18th-century European Enlightenment period, was born on June 28, 1712, in Geneva, Switzerland.
His first philosophical work, A Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, discussed how science and arts had caused the corruption of virtue and morality.
Rousseau was also a composer and music theorist.
No other philosopher’s biography is perhaps so well-known as that of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
who made his own life the subject of a number of his writings, including his great autobiographical work, the Confessions.
In 1754, he completed his Discourse on the Origins of Inequality. He returned to Geneva and to the Protestantism of his youth.
which allowed him to regain the right to citizenship he had lost with his conversion to Catholicism.
In 1755, both the Discourse on the Origins of Inequality and his work Political Economy appeared (the latter in the fifth volume of Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie).
He was born in 1712 in Geneva. His mother died a few days after his birth.
and he was raised by his father, a clockmaker, who cared for learning and had Rousseau read classical Greek and Roman literature.
His father was forced to leave Geneva while Rousseau was still young.
Apprenticed to an engraver, Rousseau eventually left Geneva in 1728, fleeing to Annecy.
There at the age of sixteen he met Françoise-Louise de Warens, a woman who would become his benefactor and mistress.
Over the next ten years, he earned money as a lackey, engraver, and music teacher.
Mme. de Warens sent him during this period to Turin, where he renounced his Calvinism and converted to Roman Catholicism.
Rousseau moved to Paris in 1742 to pursue a career as a musician and composer. In Paris, he soon befriended Diderot, who would go on to fame as an editor of the Encyclopédie.
Diderot commissioned Rousseau to write most of the articles for the Encyclopédie on musical subjects, as well as an article on political economy.
Rousseau’s time in Paris was interrupted from 1743 to 1744, when he served as Secretary to the French ambassador in Venice.
Rousseau’s rise to fame came with the appearance of his Discourse on the Arts and Science.
named the winning entry in an essay competition by the Academy of Dijon in 1750.
In a famous letter, he describes how, on a journey to Vincennes to visit Diderot, he had an extraordinary vision upon reading the notice of the essay competition: “
All at once I felt myself dazzled by a thousand sparkling lights; crowds of vivid ideas thronged into my head with a force and confusion that threw me into unspeakable agitation;
I felt my head whirling in a giddiness like that of intoxication.”
He claimed that this vision marked a fundamental turning point in his life.
and foreshadowed to him the basic principles he would unfold in his First and Second Discourse and his Emile, which he called his three “principal writings.”
Le Devin du Village
In 1752 his short opera Le Devin du Village (“The Village Soothsayer”) was performed at the French court, and his comedy Narcisse was performed at the Théâtre Français.
The following year, Rousseau wrote his Letter on French Music (1753), which contrasted Italian opera favorably with that of France.
The work sparked a public controversy and even resulted in Rousseau’s being hanged in effigy, as it was viewed as politically seditious.
In 1756 Rousseau
n 1756 Rousseau settled in a cottage, the Hermitage, on the estate of Mme. d’Epinay, a friend of many of the philosophes.
There he began work on his novel Julie, or the New Heloise. After quarrels with Mme. d’Epinay and with Diderot, Rousseau moved to the country home of the Duke of Luxembourg at Montmorency.
In 1758 his Letter to M. d’Alembert on the Theatre was published. It offered a critique of d’Alembert’s article on Geneva in the Encyclopédie.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712—1778)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts.
was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in 1750.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born to Isaac Rousseau and Suzanne Bernard in Geneva on June 28, 1712. His mother died only a few days later on July 7
and his only sibling, an older brother, ran away from home when Rousseau was still a child. Rousseau was therefore brought up mainly by his father, a clockmaker,
with whom at an early age he read ancient Greek and Roman literature such as the Lives of Plutarch.
The Confessions: Rousseau’s Autobiography
Rousseau’s own account of his life is given in great detail in his Confessions, the same title that Saint Augustine gave his autobiography over a thousand years earlier.
the “Reveries of the Solitary Walker” and “Rousseau Judge of Jean Jacques” are also autobiographical.
The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and the Enlightenment
as an Enlightenment thinker. However, there is dispute as to whether Rousseau’s thought is best characterized as “Enlightenment” or “counter-Enlightenment.”